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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers


OPINIONS ON BRIBES
SURVEY REPORT

Macieja Falkowska


Poland
WARSAW. SEPTEMBER '99

  • The majority of the surveyed (68%) heard about offering bribes in order to settle or to accelerate settling of a matter, but only somewhat less than one fifth (19%) declare personal experience in this respect. Proportion of persons offering bribes remains on the level of the year '97.

  • Those inquired, who admitted offering bribes, most often settled in this way issues related to treatment in state health service (52%), whereas considerably less often matters related to administration of justice (8%), official matters (8%) or related to employment (7%). Over the past two years number of persons who offered bribes for settling matters related to health care and issues within province of court, public prosecutor's office and police has increased.

  • Poles' attitude towards the bribery can be described as incoherent. Significant majority of the surveyed agree with a statement that the bribe in every area of life, anywhere and anytime is immoral (83% indications) and also that those who accept as well as those who offer bribes are to be condemned (73%). At the same time, majority of respondents is of the opinion that the current situation forces people to offer bribes (64%), and a gift from somebody for a favour done to him is only a token of his respect and goodwill (55%). Probably such opinions are the reason why almost half (49%) of surveyed assumes moderately rigorous attitude towards corruption. At the same time, the majority (61%) declares weak tolerance to the existence of this pathology in the public life, and one fifth (22%) believes there is no excuse for this pathology.

In one of the last surveys1 we asked the inquired about their attitude towards corruption and towards persons offering and accepting bribes. We were interested in topics such as:

  • perceived scope of this social pathology,
  • type of the matters settled by means of bribes, and
  • first of all an ethical appraisal of the very phenomenon.

ATTITUDES TOWARDS BRIBERY

In the public opinion the phenomenon of bribery has unequivocally negative connotations:

More than four in every five surveyed consider that the bribe in every area of life, anywhere and anytime is immoral (83%) and almost three out of four inquired is of the opinion that those who accept as well as those who offer bribes are to be condemned (73%). The majority of respondents also believe, that persons who accept bribes are generally dishonest people. However, in other matters the inquired are not that consistent. It is possible, that their opinions are influenced by a quite widespread conviction, that the current situation forces people to offer bribes (63%). Respondents assume a less unequivocal attitude towards the statement: offering of bribes is justified in some situations. Proportion of persons, who do not agree with this opinion and who share the opinion are almost exactly balanced (43% and 46% respectively)

Table 1
Various statements are presented below. Please indicate AgreeDo not agreeDifficult to say
 In %
A bribe in every area of life, anywhere and anytime is immoral 8389
Both those who accept and those who offer bribes are condemnable 731710
Those, who accept bribes are thoroughly dishonest people 642313
The current situation forces people to offer bribes 632611
A gift from somebody for a favour done to him is only a token of his respect and goodwill552718
Only those do not accept bribes, who are not offered any. 543114
Bribes should be very severely punished by imprisonment 533116
Offering a bribe is justified in certain circumstances 464311
The bribes ensure fair remuneration and are an addition to low salaries 394715
I will not offer a bribe even if forced by the situation. 364123
Only money bribes are condemnable325414
Those who offer bribes are to blame, not those who accept them 275420

Bribes are unequivocally appraised as unethical, but opinions about various situations and behaviours related to them depend on whether, in the past, persons participating in the survey offered bribes themselves or not. Persons, who did not offer bribes, judged those, who offered them as well as those, who accepted them more critically than others. They also more often thought that bribes should be severely punished, and more often declared, that no situation would force them to take such action, and much less often are willing to justify bribery by a situational context.

Table 2
Various statements are presented below. Please indicate whether you agree with them or not Proportion of affirmative answers
TotalOffering
bribes
Not offering
bribes
A bribe in each area of life anywhere and anytime is immoral 838185
Both those who accept and those who offer bribes are condemnable 736576
Those, who accept bribes are thoroughly dishonest people 645269
The current situation forces people to offer bribes 637758
A gift from somebody for a favour done to him is only a token of his respect and goodwill555955
Only those do not accept bribes, who are not offered any 546253
Bribes should be very severely punished by imprisonment 534557
Offering of bribes in some situations is justified 466340
The bribes ensure fair remuneration and are an addition to low salaries 395536
I will not offer a bribe even if forced by the situation 361344
Only money bribes are condemnable 322933
Those who offer bribes are to blame, not those who accept them 272528

Statements presented to the surveyed for appraisal are arranged into more general categories, describing attitudes towards bribes and persons offering and accepting bribes. Hence we are able to distinguish three kinds of attitudes towards bribery.

I. Moral condemnation. This attitude is depicted by identifying oneself with an opinion formulated in at least one of the following five statements: I) bribe in every area of life, anywhere and anytime is immoral; 2) Bribes should be very severely punished by imprisonment; 3) Those, who accept bribes are thoroughly dishonest people; 4) I will not offer a bribe even if forced by the situation; 5) Both those, who accept and those, who offer bribes are condemnable.

II. Tolerance because of social context reasons. This attitude is depicted by identifying oneself with an opinion formulated in at least one of the following four statements: 1) The current situation forces people to offer bribes; 2) Those who offer bribes are to blame, not those who accept them; 3) Only money bribes are condemnable; 4) Only those do not accept bribes who are not offered any.

III. Acceptance of a bribe in form of compensation for a favour. This kind of the attitude towards bribery is defined by acceptance of at least one of the following three statements: 1) Offering of bribes is just yield in some situations; 2) A gift from somebody for a favour done to him is only a token of his respect and goodwill 3) Bribes ensure fair remuneration and are an addition to low wages.

Such attitudes towards bribery are not mutually exclusive. Those, who regard bribes as unethical, may believe that the situation forced them to resort to such form of resolving their personal problems. In other words, moral disapproval declared does not exclude tolerance of existence of bribes (Pearson r = 0,1955), although is negatively correlated with its acceptance (Pearson r -0,1496). Whereas tolerance of bribes clearly promotes justification of persons offering bribes and accepting them (Pearson r = 0,3641).

FIG. 1 INTENSITY OF MORAL CONDEMNATION OF BRIBERY

N= 1055

Total condemnationapproval of the all five statements of which this index is composed18%
Moderate condemnationapproval of three or four of the five statements of which this index is composed49%
Weak condemnationapproval of one or two of the five statements of which this index is composed28%
Total lack of condemnationdisapproval of all five statements of which this index is composed5%

The index composed of all the opinions within this range, assumes value from 0 to 5.

Distribution of the values of the index: 0 - 5%, 1 - 10%, 2 - 18%. 3 - 24%, 4 - 25%, 5 - 18%

It turns out, that in spite of almost common acceptance of the statement, that bribe in every area of life, anywhere and at all times is immoral, almost half of the surveyed (49%) adopts a moderately rigorous attitude towards this phenomenon, and further 28% - a weakly rigorous attitude. Strongly rigorous attitude towards bribery is shown by less than every fifth inquired (18%), whereas only every twentieth (5%) assumes a totally non-rigorous attitude.

However, it should be emphasised, that in the Polish society, total condemnation of bribery (18%) is observed somewhat more often than total acceptance of the phenomenon (15%) or its total tolerance (7%) in public life.

A weak tolerance of bribery caused by pressure of circumstances is a dominating attitude (61%), but the number of the inquired who do not tolerate bribes (14%) is twice as high as the number of those who assume the attitude conventionally called total tolerance (7%). Also the total acceptance of offering and accepting bribes is more rare than the total lack of acceptance (15% and 22% respectively).

FIG. 2 INTENSITY OF THE TOLERANCE OF BRIBERY

N - 1055

Total toleranceapproval of the all four statements of which this index is composed7%
Moderate toleranceapproval of three of the four statements of which this index is composed19%
Weak tolerance approval of one or two of the four statements of which this index is composed61%
Total lack of tolerancedisapproval of all the four statements of which this index is composed14%

The index, composed of all the opinions within this range, assumes values from 0 to 4.
The distribution of the values of the index: 0 - 14%, 1 - 28%, 2 - 33%, 3 - 19%. 4 - 7%.

FIG. 3 INTENSITY OF ACCEPTANCE OF BRIBERY

N= l055

Total acceptanceapproval of all three statements of which this index is composed15%
Moderate acceptanceapproval of two of the three statements of which this index is composed31%
A weak acceptanceapproval of one of the three statements of which this index is composed32%
The total lack of acceptancedisapproval of all the three statements of which this index is composed 22%

The index, composed of all the opinions within this range, assumes values from 0 to 3.
The distribution of the values of the index: 0 - 22%, 1 - 32%, 2 - 31%, 3 - 15%.

In general, one could say, that Poles are quite rigorous in the moral appraisal of bribery, although to some extent they tolerate its existence arid approve this social pathology. It is expressed in declared acceptance of respective statements relating to bribes as well as in intensity of previously discussed attitudes towards this phenomenon.

WHAT CAN BE SETTLED BY MEANS OF BRIBES?

In spite of a nearly common opinion, that a bribe is unethical, and offering or accepting it are condemnable, according to the opinion of the inquired, bribery in Poland is a problem of a considerable scope and extent.

FIG. 4.

Now and then one hears, that the most effective way to settle even simple, not doubtful matters is to offer a bride. Have you heard for instance from acquaintances, friends, or family members about settling matters in this way?

YES - 68%
NO - 26%
IT IS DIFFICULT TO SAY - 26%

Over two thirds of the general number of the inquired (68%) heard about offering bribes for settling or acceleration of settling of even simple matters, and only slightly over one fourth (26%) never encountered this problem.

Opinions in this matter are not significantly socially differentiated. It means, that the rule "he goes forward who greases his way" is widespread in different social circles and concerns various domains of the public life. It is indicated by a large range of matters, of which the inquired have heard as having been settled by money or gifts, spontaneously mentioned in answer to the open question. Among those respondents, who have heard about offering of bribes 8% is of the opinion, that at present in Poland everything, any matter, can be settled this way.

Please name the matters that according to what you heard can be settled by way of bribe
N = 715

Treatmenthealth service, health, surgery, hospital, bed in a hospital, medical service, sanatorium43%
Jobgetting a job in general, promotion, job abroad23%
Educational systemenrolment in college, secondary school, exams, secondary school certification, passing to the next grade16%
Judiciary systemcourts, public prosecutor's office, avoidance of penalty, favourable verdict11%
Policefines, return of arrested driving license, smuggling11%
Housingconstruction permit, building sites, allocation of municipal quarters, housing issues, repairs11%
Office, administrationacceleration of issuing of a document, allocations, permits, land tenure, allocation of premises for commercial activity, installation of a telephone line9%
Businesslicenses, auctions, contracts, orders, distribution of breeding material8%
Driving licenseexamination8%
Disability pension  5%
Army release, postponement,4%
Sick leave (L-4) 3%
Credits, loan. 2%
Everything can be settled by means of bribe 8%
Others  2%

Sum of proportions does not make 100 because the inquired answering this open question could mention more than one example known to them of settling a matter by means of a bribe.

Scope of the bribery phenomenon in positively less, when we ask about behaviour patterns relating directly to the inquired.

Somewhat less than one fifth (19%) of Poles admit, that during last four years they have personally offered gift or money in order to accelerate settling of a matter, and further 8% refused to give an unequivocal answer to question about handing over bribes. It gives us grounds to believe that respondents from this category have also offered bribes in that time. Such assumption means, that more or less every fourth inquired during last four years settled various matters by offering money or gifts. Proportion of the person offering bribes remains on the level from year '97.

FIG. 5

During past four years, have you ever encountered a situation, where you were forced to offer money, gift and the like, in order to settle or accelerate settling of any matter?

IV '97
NO - 74%
YES - 20%
I'D RATHER NOT TELL - 6%

VII '99
NO - 73%
YES - 19%
I'D RATHER NOT TELL - 8%

Among those inquired, who admitted offering bribes, a considerable proportion (16%) did not reveal, what sort of matter had been settled in this way. The others definitely most often mentioned various situations related to treatment by state medical service.

What were you able to settle in this way? What was the matter, that was facilitated by handing somebody money, gift and such?

 IV '97VII '99
 (N233)(N=199)
Treatment, health also in general: medical service - getting into a hospital, surgery, childbirth, treatment, medical care, nurse care, precipitation of medical examinations, settling of sick leave, getting a certification, pension, prescription45%52%
Matters relating to courts, prosecution, police- cancellation of a case, cancellation of decision about temporary detention, avoidance of severe sentence and jail, reduced sentence, desistance of prosecutor from detaining an exhibit in the case, personal protection and preservation of property and life, car registration, return of cancelled driving license, decrease or annulment of a fine, also divorce cases, real-estate registers and such 3%8%
Official matters for instance in the bank, local administration - loans, credits, also acceleration of settling of a matter, increase of a disability pension. issue of a permit, a document, or a driving license14%8%
Job - getting a permanent job, getting a holiday job, getting a desired position, job abroad, loan in the place of employment8%7%
Education, educational system -enrolling in secondary school, college, credit of exams in colleges, leaving school with positive result 2%3%
House - housing, earlier term for renovation, getting an apartment or house 5%3%
Business -tenders, contracts, commissions, orders, transactions, avoiding customs charges, sale of the farm products, acceptance of service performed  
Others - for instance, I did not offer, did not settle matter, since they were expecting bribe8%3%
Refusal or answer - I will not say, it is my own business, personal business, secret, , I would rather do not tell and so like - 2%

Sum of proportions does not make 100 because inquired answering this open question could mention more than one example known to them of settling a matter by means of a bribe.

At present, more often than two years ago, the surveyed indicated informal costs of treatment in the state medical service. Therefore, according to the public opinion, the reform which was supposed to heal this situation, did not bring expected results, at least in this area. Results of our earlier surveys show, that Polish society was rather sceptical in assessment of possibility of sanitising relations between the personnel of state medical service and patients after introducing clear rules of payment for medical treatment. In '96 only one third of surveyed (36%) believed, that after the reform of medical service there would be no more need to give gifts and money to personnel, and 45% expected, that it would still be necessary.2

However, relatively largest changes regard the scope of bribery in the judiciary system. Since '97, declared number of cases settled in this manner in courts, prosecution office and police increased almost threefold. The question remains open, whether in this specific case we see growth of corruption in the judiciary, or has bribery, as a method of getting rid of personal problems, become so commonplace, that now people more often than in the past are willing to admit handing over bribes, regardless of a sort of matters settled.

Smaller proportion of surveyed than two years ago mentioned informal settling of various kinds of official matters or matters related to business activity.

Declared attitudes towards bribery and towards persons offering bribes and accepting them can be described as incoherent. On one hand the surveyed have unequivocally appraised the phenomenon as condemnable and unethical, with no excuse in any situation, deserving of condemnation and punishment, whereas on the other hand, majority of the respondents are now inclined to accept the existence of bribes in current situation and more than half are even ready to accept them as an expression of gratitude for a favour done, which significantly changes the very act and its moral meaning.

Majority of the surveyed are convinced of wide scope of this form of pathology in public life in Poland, but less than one in five respondents have personal experience related to offering bribes.


Notes and References

  1. Survey "Current problems and events" (110),7-13 July '99, standard random address sample of adult residents of Poland (N=1055).

  2. Cf report of CBOS "Functioning of the health care system in public opinion", May 96


    ANNEX

    Table I. Offering bribes is justified in some situations. Do you agree with this statement or not?

     AgreeDo Not
    Agree
    Difficult
    to say (%)
    Sample size
    Total4643111055
    Men
    Women
    48
    44
    43
    43
    9
    14
    500
    555
    Age
    15-24
    25-34
    35-44
    45-54
    55-64
    65andmore
     
    49
    52
    53
    45
    42
    32
     
    42
    39
    37
    46
    43
    51
     
    9
    9
    10
    10
    I5
    12
     
    151
    186
    192
    227
    127
    172
    Place of residence
    Village
    Town upto20thousand
    20-l00 thousand
    101-500 thousand
    501 th.inhabitants and more
     
    41
    54
    47
    45
    48
     
    42
    38
    45
    49
    40
     
    16
    8
    8
    7
    12
     
    396
    134
    210
    184
    129
    Education
    Elementary
    Basic technical
    Secondary
    University
     
    37
    51
    47
    49
     
    46
    39
    43
    42
     
    16
    10
    9
    9
     
    306
    286
    368
    95
    Social group -working
    Managerial staff, intellectual
    Intellectuals workers of lower
    grade
    Manual - intellectual workers
    Qualified workers
    Nonqualified workers
    Farmers
    Self-employed
     
    53
    43

    44
    56
    41
    48
    55
     
    40
    46

    38
    42
    52
    35
    34
     
    7
    11

    18
    2
    8
    13
    11
     
    76
    96

    78
    124
    45
    48
    48
    Not working
    Disability pension
    Retired
    Pupils and students
    Unemployed
    Housewives and others
     
    38
    36
    48
    53
    45
     
    45
    49
    46
    36
    42
     
    16
    15
    5
    11
    13
     
    130
    184
    56
    114
    53
    Working in
    Budget sector
    Public, state sector
    Private/ state companies
    Private sector (aside from
    farming)
    Private farm
     
    46
    41
    57
    50

    47
     
    46
    51
    35
    40

    39
     
    8
    8
    8
    10

    14
     
    102
    106
    111
    173

    56
    Income per person
    Less than 275 zl
    276-399
    400-549
    550-799
    over700zl
     
    42
    42
    46
    42
    51
     
    47
    50
    38
    47
    44
     
    10
    8
    15
    11
    4
     
    168
    133
    230
    160
    144
    Assessment of own financial
    conditions
    Good
    Medium
    Sad
     
     
    55
    43
    44
     
     
    38
    46
    43
     
     
    8
    11
    13
     
     
    203
    498
    351
    Participation in religious practices
    Several times A week
    Once a week
    I -2 times a month
    Several times a year
    No participation at all
     
    39
    42
    49
    56
    48
     
    47
    44
    39
    40
    45
     
    14
    14
    12
    4
    7
     
    168
    568
    139
    190
    90
    Political view
    The Left
    The Centre
    The Right
    Difficult to say
     
    52
    48
    38
    43
     
    40
    43
    53
    36
     
    7
    9
    9
    21
     
    265
    278
    263
    250



    Table 2. Bribes ensure fair remuneration and are an addition to low wages. Do you agree with this statement or not? (%.)

     AgreeDo not
    agree
    Difficult
    to say
    Sample size
    Total3947151054
    Sex
    Men
    Women
     
    43
    44
     
    43
    50
     
    14
    16
     
    499
    555
    Age
    18-24
    25-34
    35-44
    45-54
    55-64
    65 and more
     
    40
    43
    44
    39
    30
    32
     
    42
    39
    37
    46
    43
    51
     
    8
    18
    10
    13
    20
    21
     
    151
    186
    192
    227
    125
    172
    Place of residence
    village
    Town up to 20 thousand
    20-l00 thousand
    101-500 thousand
    501 th. Inhabitants and more
     
    36
    41
    39
    37
    44
     
    45
    48
    48
    45
    50
     
    19
    11
    13
    18
    6
     
    395
    134
    210
    184
    129
    Education
    Elementary
    Basic technical
    Secondary
    University
     
    36
    42
    41
    27
     
    45
    45
    45
    63
     
    19
    14
    14
    9
     
    306
    286
    367
    95
    Social group - working
    Managerial staff. intellectual
    Intellectuals worker, of lower grade
    Manual - intellectual workers
    Qualified workers
    Nonqualified worker,
    Farmers
     
    41
    41
    49
    49
    37
    49
    42
     
    50
    52
    42
    34
    50
    34
    51
     
    9
    7
    9
    17
    13
    17
    7
     
    76
    96
    77
    124
    45
    45
    48
    Not working
    Disability pension
    Retired
    Pupils and students
    Unemployed
    Housewives and others
     
    27
    32
    34
    37
    40
     
    47
    52
    61
    45
    40
     
    25
    16
    5
    18
    20
     
    130
    184
    56
    114
    53
    Working in Budget sector
    Public,state sector
    Private, state companies
    Private sector (aside from farming)
    Private farm
     
    44
    47
    40
    41

    46
     
    46
    43
    50
    46

    37
     
    1
    11
    10
    13

    17
     
    102
    106
    109
    173

    56
    Income per person
    to275 zl
    276-399
    400-549
    550-799
    over 799 zl
     
    33
    47
    34
    41
    46
     
    49
    37
    50
    46
    49
     
    17
    16
    16
    13
    10
     
    168
    133
    228
    160
    144
    Assessment of own financial
    conditions
    Good
    Medium
    Bad
     
     
    36
    42
    35
     
     
    53
    43
    48
     
     
    11
    15
    17
     
     
    202
    498
    351
    Participation In religious practices
    Several times a week
    Once a week
    1-2 times a month
    Several times a year
    No Participation at all
     
    34
    38
    43
    36
    46
     
    54
    45
    44
    51
    44
     
    12
    17
    14
    13
    10
     
    68
    567
    132
    190
    90
    Political views
    The Left
    The Centre
    The Right
    Difficult to say
     
    41
    43
    33
    31
     
    46
    47
    49
    44
     
    13
    10
    13
    25
     
    264
    278
    263
    250




    Table 3. I will not offer a bribe even if forced by the situation. Do you agree with this statement or nor? (%)

     AgreeDo not agreeDifficult
    to say
    Sample size
    Total3641231055
    Sex Men
    Women
    35
    37
    43
    43
    22
    25
    500
    555
    Age
    18-24
    25-34
    35-44
    45-54
    55-64
    65 and more
     
    31
    27
    35
    34
    45
    46
     
    48
    50
    44
    44
    28
    27
     
    22
    24
    21
    22
    26
    27
     
    151
    186
    192
    227
    127
    172
    Place of residence
    village
    Town up to20thousand
    20-l00 thousand
    101-500 thousand
    501 th. Inhabitants and more
     
    36
    28
    34
    47
    31
     
    37
    46
    47
    31
    51
     
    27
    26
    19
    22
    18
     
    396
    134
    210
    184
    29
    Education
    Elementary
    Basic technical
    Secondary
    University
     
    42
    33
    33
    36
     
    29
    46
    45
    48
     
    29
    21
    22
    16
     
    306
    286
    368
    95
    Social group - working
    Managerial staff, intellectuals
    Intellectuals workers of lower
    grade
    Manual-intellectual workers
    Qualified workers
    Non-qualified workers
    Farmers
    Self Employed
     
    43
    37

    30
    27
    29
    39
    7
     
    42
    46

    48
    50
    50
    30
    66
     
    15
    17

    22
    23
    22
    21
    27
     
    76
    96

    78
    124
    45
    48
    48
    Not working
    Disability Pension
    Retired
    Pupils and students
    Unemployed
    Housewives and others
     
    43
    45
    29
    31
    48
     
    29
    30
    40
    44
    31
     
    28
    25
    30
    25
    21
     
    130
    184
    56
    114
    53
    Working in
    Budget sector
    Public, state sector
    Private, state companies
    Private sector (aside from
    farming)
    Private farm
     
    47
    24
    28
    25

    39
     
    33
    50
    59
    50

    43
     
    20
    25
    12
    25

    18
     
    102
    106
    111
    173

    56
    income per person
    to 275 zl
    276-399
    400-549
    550-799
    over799zl
     
    38
    46
    31
    30
    36
     
    39
    38
    43
    34
    47
     
    24
    15
    26
    27
    18
     
    168
    133
    230
    160
    44
    Assessment of own financial
    conditions
    Good
    Medium
    Bad
     
     
    32
    37
    37
     
     
    48
    39
    39
     
     
    21
    24
    24
     
     
    203
    498
    351
    Participation in religious practices
    Several times a week
    Once a week
    l-2 times in a month
    Several times a year
    No Participation at all
     
    46
    37
    26
    34
    39
     
    31
    36
    52
    50
    42
     
    23
    27
    22
    16
    19
     
    68
    568
    138
    190
    90
    Political views
    The left
    The Centre
    The Rights
    Difficult to say
     
    36
    30
    34
    34
     
    45
    41
    41
    36
     
    20
    10
    25
    35
     
    265
    278
    263
    250



    Table 4. Current situation forces people to offer bribes. Do you agree with this statement or not? (%)

     AgreeDo not
    agree
    Difficult
    to say/
    Sample
    size
    Total6326111055
    Sex Men
    Women
    63
    62
    27
    25
    10
    13
    500
    555
    Age
    18-24
    25-34
    35-44
    45-54
    55-64
    65 and more
     
    68
    70
    62
    61
    62
    47
     
    24
    23
    22
    26
    26
    35
     
    8
    7
    10
    13
    12
    18
     
    151
    186
    192
    227
    127
    172
    Place of residence
    Village
    Town up to 20 thousand
    20-l00 thousand
    1Ol-500 thousand
    501 th. Inhabitants and more
     
    63
    59
    69
    58
    62
     
    23
    34
    22
    29
    28
     
    14
    7
    9
    13
    11
     
    396
    134
    210
    184
    129
    Education
    Elementary
    Basic technical
    Secondary
    University
     
    54
    69
    66
    62
     
    31
    22
    23
    31
     
    15
    8
    12
    6
     
    306
    286
    368
    95
    Social group - working
    Managerial staff
    Intellectuals
    Intellectuals workers of lower grade
    Manual - intellectual workers
    Qualified workers
    Nonqualified workers
    Farmers
    Self-employed
     
    54
    72
    70
    69
    56
    66
    74
     
    32
    21
    19
    25
    39
    21
    19
     
    13
    7
    10
    6
    5
    13
    2
     
    76
    96
    78
    124
    45
    48
    48
    Not working
    Disability pension
    Retired
    Pupils and students
    Unemployed
    Housewives and others
     
    53
    54
    58
    70
    71
     
    31
    29
    30
    22
    18
     
    15
    17
    13
    9
    11
     
    130
    184
    56
    114
    53
    Working in
    Budget sector
    Public. state sector
    Private state companies
    Private sector (aside from farming)
    Private farm
     
    63
    67
    69
    67
    66
     
    27
    30
    19
    25
    18
     
    10
    3
    13
    8
    16
     
    102
    106
    111
    173
    56
    Income per person
    to275 zl
    276-399
    400-549
    550-799
    ovcr799z~
     
    65
    61
    61
    67
    65
     
    27
    29
    29
    20
    26
     
    8
    10
    10
    12
    0
     
    168
    133
    230
    160
    144
    Assessment of own financial conditions
    Good
    Medium
    Bad
     
    67
    60
    65
     
    23
    29
    24
     
    10
    11
    12
     
    203
    498
    351
    Participation in religious practices
    Several times a week
    Once a week
    1-2 times a month
    Several times a year
    No participation at all
     
    53
    61
    68
    71
    57
     
    38
    27
    20
    21
    31
     
    9
    13
    11
    8
    12
     
    62
    568
    138
    190
    90
    Political views
    The Left
    The Centre
    The Rights
    Difficult to say
     
    71
    61
    60
    59
     
    21
    28
    32
    23
     
    1
    11
    8
    8
     
    265
    278
    263
    250




    Table 5. During past four years, have you ever encountered a situation, where you were forced so offer money, gift and the like, in order so settle or accelerate settling of any matter?

      YesNoI'd
    rather
    not tell
    Sample
    size
    Total197381055
    Sex: Men
    Women
    21
    17
    72
    75
    7
    8
    500
    555
    Age
    18-24
    25-34
    35-44
    45-54
    55-64
    65 and more
     
    22
    26
    27
    17
    13
    7
     
    70
    69
    65
    74
    82
    85
     
    8
    5
    8
    9
    5
    9
     
    151
    186
    192
    227
    27
    172
    Place of residence
    Village
    Town upto20 thousand
    20-100 thousand
    10l-500 thousand
    501 th. inhabitants and more
     
    16
    13
    22
    17
    31
     
    76
    51
    69
    77
    61
     
    8
    6
    20
    6
    8
     
    396
    134
    210
    184
    129
    Education
    Elementary
    Basic technical
    Secondary
    University
     
    10
    22
    24
    21
     
    83
    72
    67
    72
     
    7
    7
    9
    7
     
    306
    286
    368
    95
    Social group - working
    Managerial staff, intellectuals
    Intellectuals workers of lower grade
    Manual - intellectual workers
    Qualified workers
    Nonqualified workers
    Farmer
    Self-employed
     
    31
    22
    30
    26
    24
    17
    27
     
    66
    71
    66
    63
    73
    81
    59
     
    3
    7
    5
    12
    3
    2
    14
     
    76
    96
    78
    124
    45
    48
    48
    Not working
    Disability pension
    Retired
    Pupils and students
    Unemployed
    Housewives and others
     
    10
    8
    20
    18
    13
     
    82
    82
    75
    71
    83
     
    7
    9
    5
    11
    4
     
    130
    184
    56
    114
    53
    Working in
    Budget sector
    Public, state sector
    Private, state companies
    Private sector (aside from fanning)
    Private farm
     
    16
    28
    36
    23
    15
     
    78
    67
    54
    68
    83
     
    6
    6
    10
    9
    2
     
    102
    106
    111
    173
    56
    Income per person
    to27Szt
    276-390
    400-549
    550-799
    over799zl
     
    21
    19
    16
    20
    24
     
    70
    74
    75
    77
    69
     
    9
    6
    9
    3
    8
     
    168
    33
    230
    160
    144
    Assessment of own financial conditions
    Good
    Medium
    Bad
     
    24
    15
    22
     
    72
    70
    67
     
    4
    6
    1
     
    203
    498
    351
    Participation in religious practices
    Several times a week
    Once a week
    l-2 times a month
    Several times a year
    No participation at all
     
    19
    15
    27
    25
    18
     
    79
    77
    65
    68
    72
     
    1
    8
    9
    7
    10
     
    62
    568
    132
    190
    90
     
    Political views
    The Left
    The Centre
    The Rights
    Difficult to say
     
    22
    24
    19
    10
     
    69
    68
    78
    79
     
    9
    8
    3
    11
     
    265
    278
    263
    250

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