The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference
FOSTERING REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN PREVENTION AND
INVESTIGATION OF CORRUPTION
CHAIR: Rainer Bührer - Interpol
RAPPORTEUR: Stefan Grobler
OBJECTIVE: SHARE JOINT OBJECTIVES
MR RYAN WONG : ICAC HONG KONG
Regional Newsletter for Regions.
Created 1974 - 1 200 staff members - Operations /Community Relations / Prevention.
3 prong approach. Answers to Head of Government.
Commissioner has statutory obligation to investigate.
There is Operations Overview Committee to oversee its operations.
Investigators cannot write off case without permission of O.O.C.
Responsible for ICAC to enhance regional co-operation.
The participants created a quarterly review.
March 1999 Silver Jubilee Conference was convened for:-making available training facilities.
RCMP, MET, Interpol etc & also sharing best practices.
Focus on professional training.
Provide legislative framework to provide assistance. Law has been passed to do this.
8 countries have signed the MLA (Mutual Legal Assistance Law).
It makes provision for co-operation in cases of :
There is a prescribed arrangement but it works well.
- search and seizure
- restraint of property
- service of
MR MARK CODD : FBI
FBI has greatest jurisdictional authority in USA.
- Over 11 000 agents. Strength is also its weakness due to
complication of structure. In USA local control is above all else.
FBI is at top of pyramid that dominates law enforcement - Federal,
State & local.
- FBI has large mandate. Many law enforcement agencies
have concurrent jurisdiction and complicate the scenario.
- FBI tries to service the provision of assistance by representatives in over 50
countries. It acts as the gateway to co-operation by these legal
- Focus is not only on investigation. Prime focus on systemic corruption.
It stays away from individual cases.
- Government cannot investigate itself beyond a certain level -
impartial entities are then appointed (ref Pres Clinton). FBI agents
are usually appointed for this.
Also important in training. Average age - 23 to 37
(average 28). Educators join FBI thus they have large field to draw
trainers from. Training is one of FBI=s main focus - academy at
Quantico in Virginia formed in 1930's. 10% of class are international
students. Precurser for senior appointment and serves as a benchmark.
FBI also to establish training in South Africa.
Reference to IGEC (International Group of Experts on Corruption) as
important to efforts to combat corruption. Approach also the Interpol
NCB for assistance. Use Internet.
MR EDWIN SAKOLA : ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENCY : ZAMBIA
- Created in 1982 to deal with public and private corruption. Not a
police agency. ACC created as result of public outcry on perceived
corruption. Relied on ICAC for setting up. Commission made up of
Board and Directorate. Board does admin and Directorate the
- ACC law makes provicison for mutual legal assistance
to and from other agencies. Grand corruption often involves a foreign
person or account.
- Increased legal facilitation is needed to increase ability. SADEC is involved.
Also contact with Botswana, Malawi. Since political change in South Africa there has
been an upsurge of money movement from Zambia to South Africa.
- International conferences give opportunity to interact. Appeal to other countries
to react to requests for assistance immediately.
MR ROBERT QUICK : METROPOLITAN POLICE
- Background to corruption in UK - 1990's. Experience - major
operations compromised. Police involvement. 2 year covert operation
to do strategic analysis. Major A/C drive started - look at
corruption, dishonesty and unethical behaviour. MPS formed in July
1829 - has brand name to protect. Commissioner Sir Robert Mark
appointed to investigate - nature / response / result. 700 officers
1. Accept problem
2. Build picture
- total commitment to deal with problem
- all source intelligence
- concentrate on crooks /suspect officers etc.
Corruption was all over.
Went public on corruption and initiated a strategy.
MPS Anti-Corruption Squad.
Aggressive results. Many officers charged.
How corruption was being committed.
- never drop guard
- protect and detect etc.
Sets out structure. Various forces, appointment of commissioners,
NCS, NCIS, MPS ACC.
Put resources into the fight. Cost driven, achieve parity,
greater researches into causes, new research opportunity. Bad apples
and Regional Cooperation (IGEC).
- attack organised crime
- International Banking problem
- good corporate governance
- international regulator to apply sanctions
- harmonize legislation
- foreign office makes money available for foreign
- exchange expertise
- legislative alignment
- use of foreign material in UK
- internet access - updated
- regional protocols
- priority and fast track deployment
- technical surveillance
- list of contacts (right people)
- develop financial investigation methods.
Rather do something and fail, than to do nothing at all!
Q Obtaining evidence or extradition from abroad - rules not followed
or broken - suggestions?
A Interceptions can only be used as a basis
for further investigations. Would welcome clarity from courts on these
Q Types of crimes brought to notice through international cooperation.
Problems of sovereignty slow down development issues to combat these
A IGEC being set up to deal with the problems.
Q Each country will still have to go home and deal with its own
problem. Is there a way to get ex-patriates back to their country to
A Countries responsible for proceeds of corruption - can
be returned - to investigate and return it.
DIRECTOR STEFAN GROBLER : NATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION UNIT : SOUTH AFRICA
MR ABU KASSIM BIN MOHAMMED : ACA MALAYSIA
ACA established in 1967.
- to gather information
- investigate and
- report to heads of Government on corruption /
Prevent, Investigate and Educate
New Anti-Corruption Law passed in 1997 to make provisions for
increased sentences and presumptions. Role of ACA was expanded to
monitor all Government units. Placed on data base at ACA. They
analyse and pick up on problems. ACoordination between states is a
ACA has good relations with ICAC, NSW Australia and ICAC Hong Kong.
Most important aspect of prevention is monitoring. ACA
must report every 3 months on its work.
MR RAINER BÜHRER : INTERPOL
Interpol - set up 1914 - 177 members. Purpose to ensure mutual
assistance. All members contribute to its budget.
- National Central Bureau (NCB)
- Regional Bureau (RB) NCB
will channel information to the General Secretariat in Lyon.
RB is to co-ordinate regional information
Interpol offers various services : ICIS, ASF, ACIU, Notices, Fingerprints and DNA,
ID and Support for Law Enforcement in technical training.
- Functions are predominantly that of liaison.
Criticism is that Interpol is not operational enough.
- Facilitate cooperation by :
- case related workgroups
- expert groups
- to complete a library of best practices that will be
- to compile a calendar of events for people to
plan their events.
- create an early warning system.
- minimum standard for Law Enforcement Officers to guide them in
investigation, prosecution and judicial process.
Q Oman is an active member of Interpol.
- How many languages in Interpol?
- M E is left out of centralizing?
- What action to bring members to make it globally representative?
- How quick can information be obtained?
- 4 languages - English, French, Spanish and Arabic
- not left out. Saudi Arabia opted to not co-operate
- trying to get everyone involved.
- Depends on criteria given to it by NCB. Measures are
being set up by Interpol to facilitate this.
Q What about corruption perpetrated against private sector.
Corruption defined is not clear. Something special is needed for
cross border crimes. Many crimes not pursued because of problems
involved. Would like to see Regional Committees representative of
financial sector to deal with these problems. Banking Council has
proposed such a committee to SADEC. Would like to see such a regional
(SA & Europe) set up.
A IGEC definition read out.
Suggest regional watchdogs to keep watch over bribery and corruption in area.