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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers


EVALUATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ETHICS PROGRAMS

Elia Armstrong
Programme for Economic and Administrative Development
United Nations


  1. UN not in the business of evaluating member countries; rather the secretariat is accountable to the countries; has a role to play in assisting countries to evaluate themselves

  2. During this presentation, want to cover the basics of evaluation at a very general level and incorporate some of UN and UNDP work as examples; happy to take more specific questions later.

  3. What is program evaluation? Process to measure the outputs, outcomes, and impacts of a program. (explain)

  4. Why do we carry out evaluation? To ensure that ethics programs are having intended effects. Are they reaching their objectives of guiding public officials, managing the system in place, and rewarding good behaviour and sanctioning behaviour that breaks rules? Often generates anxiety about failure to measure up. Results will reflect badly upon an organisation or country. But this is an integral part of ensuring program effectiveness and ultimately accountability about the value of the program to the public.

  5. Who carries out evaluations?
    At the ministry or agency level:
    • self- agency itself;
    • peer - other agencies;
    • "experts"-oversight, consultancy, co-ordinating agency;
    • the public - the ultimate "evaluators" of ethics programs.
    At the country level:
    • self- national integrity workshops with all stakeholders;
    • peer review - regional level where look at the programs and their elements with a view to recognising best practices and benchmarks.

  6. How to carry out evaluations and benefit from experience of others?
    e.g. Public Service Ethics in Africa: comparative study of ethics systems in 10 countries: Cameroon, Gabon, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda to establish a database of actual policies, legislation, regulations, programs, and institutions that make up ethics systems to assist countries to establish best practices and set benchmarks or establish national priorities and goals; see summary.

  7. When carry out evaluations?
    Periodic regular evaluations but also as a result of regional agreements or guiding principles. Heard about the GCA principles against corruption in Africa; regarding ethics systems there is the Rabat Declaration: mention charter and code of conduct

  8. Evaluations: not seen as threats but opportunities. International organisations can assist in providing a forum for countries to look at themselves in the light of what others are doing; recognise best practices and benchmarks. Integral part of ethics management in the public sector. Important to highlight that they are NOT the experts evaluating members but are simply facilitating a process of peer and ultimately self-evaluation.

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