IACC-Logo, back to IACC-Home

INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION CONFERENCE (IACC)
Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
Organisers
Registration
past IACCs
Sponsors
Contact

Lima
Declaration 

Durban
Commitment

Privacy Policy

Impressum

The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers


ETHIOPIA'S NATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES TO CONSIDER

In order to be effective, the initiation for fighting corruption should come from the concerned country, preferably from the government. External efforts should aim at creating an indigenous initiative not, of course, by force.

Once such an indigenous initiative is created, support should be garnered from donor countries and/or organisations for fund-ing projects designed to fight corruption and build capacity.

Capacity building can be facilitated by experts that advising or assisting the concerned officials in their fight against corrup-tion. This strategy may be preferable in the short-term. However, in the long run, we should aim at creating local capacity by providing sufficient training.

All anti-corruption activities should be participatory with the centre of stakeholders' participation revolving around the in- volvement of the civil society.

However, participation should not be considered as only formality. In order to achieve real participation, expert work is necessary to publicise the background of the issue for discussion. It is only in this respect that stakeholder participation can be meaningful.

Prioritizing Problem Areas
ProblemWho benefitsWho losesActions already taken Actions to takeExpected results/by when
     GovernmentCivil SocietyTeam 
Rule of Law: Lack of capacity of judges with respect to case loads
Lack of skill in respect to handling cases of corruption
  • Suspects
  • Defendants
  • Criminals
  • Corrupt
  • The public
  • The innocent
  • Govt
Government declared to fight against corruption
  • Mobilise resources
  • Drafting efficient procedure & evidence law
  • Create an efficient judicial system by restructuring the organisations
  • Development of training packages & conduct training
  • Revise existing Penal Code & criminal procedures
  • Participation in stakeholder meetings
  • Undertake research on the existing system
  • Publicising the problems & solutions
  • Create forums for public participation
  • Design projects
  • Raise funds
  • Recruit consultants
  • Co-ordinate Government & civil soci-ety activities
  • Approve draft legislation & send to respective bodies for final approval
Before Sep/99
  • Project design
  • Recruitment of consultant
Sept/99 - Nov/00
  • Drafting the procedures & evidence will be completed
Nov/99 - Jan/2000
  • Designing system & procedures will be completed
Jan - March/2000
  • Development of training program will be complete & at least the first training will be completed
Inadequate judicial system and procedures   Justice and legal reform program launched     
Lack of technological support   Design to strengthen the capacity of the judiciary     
Inadequate criminal law in respect to controlling corruption   Design to develop Code of Conduct     




Civil Service Reform
Reform ProposalAnticipated BenefitsAnticipated Risks or Objections Anti-Corruption ContributionSteps Leading to Action (Gov't, CS, CG) Where the Bank Can Assist
Decentralisation of basic social services to reg'l administration
  • Improved efficiency & responsiveness to changing service delivery environment
  • Increased response to political & reg'l pressures for more decentralisation services taken closer to local people
  • Increases the sense of ownership and hence honesty
  • In the short term on a limited scale misappropriation of quality public administration due to low capacity to shoulder decentralised
In the short run it will be modest, but in the long run it will have great contribution Gov't Assist on capacity building
Fiscal decentralisation
  • Effective & efficient mobilisation of resources
  • Effective & need-based financial decision
  • Effective utilisation
  • In the short term on a limited scale misappropriation of fund
In the short run it will be modest & in the long term it will be effective Gov'tTechnical assistance in terms of info & training
Autonomous central agency for university education syllabus designing examination
  • Standard system of education quality
  • Effective utilisation of scarce expertise
  • If it is participatory there will not be risk
ModestGov'tFinancial support
  1. Privatisation of hospitals
  2. Making them properties
  3. Selling attached properties
  4. Creating an agency for drug enforcement
  • Increased efficiency & quality of service
  • Same
  • Mobilisation of needed resources
  • Ensuring public safety
  • Financial pressure on clients
  • Demoralises staff in employment elsewhere in the civil services pay will be higher in autonomous institutions
  • Triggers corruption
Modest

Modest

Modest





Significant
Gov't

Gov't

Gov't





Gov't & Civil society
Capacity building
Finance
Improving Civil Service Compensation System
  • Motivation of staff
  • Enhances the honesty of the civil service
  • Reduce Corruption
  • Modest
ModestGov't 
  1. Bank salaries with allowances of central gov't to be raised
  • Motivation of staff
  • Reduce corruption
  • Demoralise other staff
ModestGov't  
  1. Instead of gov't residence, en-courage em-ployees to build their own houses
  • Motivation of staff
  • Creates an opportunity for corruption
ModestGov'tFinancial support
  1. Monitisation of senior officers' facilities
  • Enhance equal treatment & standardised
  • Serves as the basis for establishment of fair pay
  • Diversion of the money for other purposes
ModestGov't 




ETHIOPIA'S NATIONAL INTEGRITY STRATEGY
ActionsWhoResourcesWhenTime already committed Accomplishment
Corruption Survey (preparation)
  • Gov't (Ethics Sub-Program)
  • World Bank Institute (WBI)
Within 60 days 54 days
  • The counterpart is already assigned
  • The independent organization is selected to do the survey
  • The questionnaire is selected and contextualization is underway
  • Selected pre-testing center
  • Selected languages and sample regions
Organizing Panel Discussion for participation of civil society against corruption
  • Walla Information Center
  • Civil Society
  • Commercial Bank of Ethiopia
  • Ethics Sub-Program
  • Christian Relief & Development Program, Addis Ababa
  • Chamber of Commerce
June 24, 19991 day
  • Conducted a one-day panel discussion on the issue of fighting corruption, participated by different level officials, and civil society:
    • Media
    • Chamber of Commerce
    • trade unions
    • women's associations
  • The Ethiopian Television and other media disseminated the Panel Discussion for 7 days, 30 minutes air time each day
Strengthening Media
  • Resource mobilize
  • Recruitment of consultants
  • Gov't (Ethics Sub-Program)
  Within 90 days54 days
  • The resource mobilization is successful
  • The project will be helped by Canadian Int'l Development Agency (CIDA) and British Gov't
  • Recruitment of consultant is underway
Strengthening Enforcement
  • Resource mobilize
  • Recruitment of consultants
  • Gov't (Ethics Sub-Program)
  • WBI
  • Other donors
Within 90 days54 days
  • Resource mobilizing & recruitment of consultant is still underway
Completing Inception Development Central Body (for discussion)
  • Gov't (Ethics Sub-Program)
  Within 90 days54 days
  • Int'l consultant engaged
  • Induction of training is given to the Core Team by the consultant
  • Assessment of present practice by consultant and local staff
  • Development of recommendation on the establishment of the Central Body is underway
Code of Conduct (first draft)
  • Gov't (Ethics Sub-Program)
  Within 90 days54 days
  • Int'l consultant engaged
  • Assessment of present practice by consultant and local staff
  • Conducted consultation workshop on the principles of Code of Conduct with stakeholders
  • Development of the draft of Code of Conduct is underway




Ethiopa: Prioritizing Problem Areas
ProblemsWho benefits?Who loses?Actions already taken Actions to take
Lack of capacity/efficiency of judiciary and implementation Suspects
Defendants
Claimants
Public
The State
Plaintiff
Justice and legal reform program launchedGovernment:
  • Sustain the reform program Civil Society:
  • Participation in the program Team:
  • Work on building capacity of police, prosecutors and judiciary and educate public




Ethiopa: Identifying Next Steps
ProblemsActions to takeResources neededExpected Results and by when?
  Government:
Prepare corruption survey (Ethics sub-program)
WBIWithin 60 days
Lack of civil society participationFounders of Society under function: Register a civil society anti-corruption organizationPrimary founders and TC/2/ September 30, 1999
Weak media Government Ethics Sub-Program: Strengthen enforcement through mobilization of resources and recruitment of consultantsWBI and other donorsWithin 90 days
Lack of enforcementGovernment Ethics Sub-Program:
Strengthen enforcement through mobilization of resources and recruitment of consultants
 Within 90 days
Absence of an open discussion forumGovernment Ethics Sub-Program:
Completing inception development of central body for discussion
 Within 90 days
Lack of accountabilityGovernment Ethics Sub-Program:
Code of Conduct
 First draft within 90 days





ETHIOPIA: STRATEGY MATRIX
ProblemReform
Leadership
  • Lack of personal stability because of frequent changes of management
  • Inefficient control mechanism
Government and Stakeholders
  • Reduce frequent change of management
  • Capacity building in terms of personal skills
  • Develop Code of Ethics
  • Work together with anti-corruption central body
  • Reward those who are faithful officials in order to encourage them

Government, Stakeholders and Civil Society
  • Introduce participatory approach
Civil Society
  • They are also corruptors
  • Hesitant in revealing corruption incidents
  • Lack of strong and active organization
Stakeholders:
  • Strengthen Chamber of Commerce, Transistors Association, professional associations, and religious bodies
  • Develop Code of Conduct
Stakeholders and Civil Society:
  • These associations will establish Strategic Alliances with media and gov't and other stakeholders to fight corruption
  • Create public awareness
  • Create alliance to fight corruption




ETHIOPIA: CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
(i) Reform ProposalsAnticipated Benefits(ii) Anticipated Risks Steps Leading to Action: Gov't, Civil Society, Core Group Anti-Corruption Contribution
Decentralization of basic social services to reg'l administrations
  • Improved efficiency and responsiveness to changing service delivery equipment
  • Increased response to political and reg'l pressures for more decentralization- services taken closer to the people
  • Increases in the sense of ownership and hence honesty
  • Duplication of services
  • Misappropriation of public funds
  • Deterioration of quality of public admin due to low capacity to shoulder decentralized responsibility
  • Government
Modest
Fiscal Decentralization
  • Effective and efficient mobilization of resources
  • Effective and need-based financial decision
  • Misappropriation
  • Government
Negative
Autonomous central agency for university education, syllabus designing examination
  • Standardized system of education - quality
  • Effective utilization of scarce expertise
  • Poor contextualization of higher education
  Modest
  • Privatization of hospitals
  • Making them autonomous
  • Selling attached properties
  • Creating an agency for drug enforcement
  • Increased efficiency & quality of service
  • Increased efficiency & quality of service
  • Mobilization of needed resources
  • Ensuring public safety
  • Financial pressure on clients
  • Demoralizes staff in employment elsewhere in the civil service as pay will be higher in autonomous institutions
  • Triggers corruption
  • Depletes public fund particularly if not a priority
  • Gov't


  • Gov't


  • Gov't


  • Gov't & Civil Society
Modest


Modest


Modest


Modest
Improving Civil Service Compensation System
  • Bank salaries with allowances of central gov't to be raised
  • Instead of gov't residence encouraging employees to build their own houses
  • Monetization of senior officers facilities
  • Motivation of staff
  • Ensuring honest civil service
  • Reduce corruption
  • Motivation of staff
  • Reduce corruption
  • Motivation of staff
  • Signal for transparency
  • Serves as the basis for establishment of fair play
  • Pressure on public financial resources
  • Demoralize other staff
  • Encouragement of corruption
  • No risk
  • Gov't


  • Gov't


  • Gov't


  • Government
  • Important


  • Important


  • Important


  • Important

return to table of contents