IACC-Logo, back to IACC-Home

Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
past IACCs



Privacy Policy


The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers

National Integrity Strategies:
Executive Summaries World Bank Institute




Current Perspectives

There is a consensus now in Benin about fighting corruption. This comes from a recent coalition between the government and civil society in a joint effort to face the matter.

Many anti-corruption initiatives had been taken, especially since 1990, by various bodies of the Executive as well as the Judiciary. These initiatives mainly dealt with financial management, the civil society, the judiciary and also NGO's of the civil society.

However, upon critical test, it appears that these actions have not met the population expectations, leaving them even weary and disappointed.

Therefore, more drastic measures expressed through anti- corruption strategic plan are necessary to bridge the confidence gap and be more efficient in the combat against corruption.

After the various meetings we held with Ministries representatives as well as other state bodies or institutions, we were able to select 5 (five) priorities reached by consensus and being the basis of the national strategic plan. The 5 priorities are:

  1. strengthening the political will
  2. enforcement of laws
  3. judiciary and legal system review
  4. public sector institutions reform
  5. Addressing education and communication

For each of these priorities, we will have a look at:

  1. New Perspectives
  2. Concrete actions
  3. Obstacles


* New perspectives
By removing, its electoral and political concerns the Executive should seek will to enforce anti-corruption law at all time regardless of the person involved.

* Concrete actions
Trials of the major cases of corruption malpractice currently recorded with an emphasis placed upon repayment of the embezzled funds.

* Obstacles
The lack of political will remain an actual fact as far as the problem of political parties funding would be solved.


* New perspectives
Setting of an environment free form fear and undue influence where anti-corruption organizations should not depend upon the Executive they are supposed to control.

* Concrete actions
Creation of an independent control body, appointed by the Parliament, irremovable and headed by an independent auditor.

Also, make sure that internal auditors in ministries are legally protected and independent.

* Obstacles
The Executive resistance to the change in forces equilibrium


* New perspectives
Building trust and confidence in the legal system and its efficiency, applying ethic rules, and making sure of the independence and responsibility of the judiciary, would certainly reduce temptation to corruption.

* Concrete actions
Recruit, train and specialize judges in anti - corruption matter along with providing modern workplaces.

* Obstacles
Here, politicians are at the risk to loose the means of pressure they were used to


* New perspectives

  • De-politicize civil service
  • Insure good financial management, procurement and higher taxes collection

* Concrete actions

  • Define profile and civil servant career prospects
  • Publishing and popularizing procedures manuals in all public services
  • Code of ethics in biddings and contracting

* Obstacles

  • The problem of funding for political parties
  • The low purchasing power of civil servants


* New perspectives
Raising the citizens' awareness upon the economical and democratic consequences of corruption and promoting transparency in the civil service management.

* Concrete actions

  • Upgrade NGOs, moral and religious authorities in their abilities to educate and lead citizens.
  • More training of investigative journalist.

* Obstacles Information
kept out of reach of media and the fact of being state sponsored.




In order to be effective, the initiation for fighting corruption should come from the concerned country, preferably from the government. External efforts should aim at creating an indigenous initiative not, of course, by force.

Once such an indigenous initiative is created, support should be garnered from donor countries and/or organisations for funding projects designed to fight corruption and build capacity.

Capacity building can be facilitated by experts that advising or assisting the concerned officials in their fight against corrup-tion. This strategy may be preferable in the short-term. However, in the long run, we should aim at creating local capacity by providing sufficient training.

All anti-corruption activities should be participatory with the centre of stakeholders' participation revolving around the involvement of the civil society. However, participation should not be considered as only formality. In order to achieve real participation, expert work is necessary to publicise the background of the issue for discussion. It is only in this respect that stakeholder participation can be meaningful.



The Ghana Matrix has been developed against the background of a return to constitutional rule, continuous progress in consolidating democratic governance, growing official and civil society recognition of the dangers of corruption, and the need to curb it.

Other auspicious developments include the formal expressions of commitment to uproot indiscipline in our national life in the Presidential Sessional Addresses and other speeches, as well as the creation of the Serious Fraud office to deal with complex fraud, and reinventing government under the National Institutional Renewal Program (NIRP).

The Matrix was developed by representatives from state institutions and non- governmental organizations in collaboration with the World Bank. It is based on a number of assumptions. First, that corruption is endemic in Ghanaian society and is a serious impediment to economic and social development. Second, previous attempts at curbing this canker have failed because they failed to identify and address the underlying causes of the problem, the anti-corruption crusade was not participatory and the emphasis was solely on law enforcement by the use of draconian anti-corruption laws and stiff penalties.

The Matrix identifies the problem areas in fighting corruption, the steps, if any, that have already been taken to address these problems, and the steps that need to be taken in the short, medium and long term. The programme also assesses a time frame for implementation of the program and the expected results.

Some of the greatest obstacles to curbing corruption include the following: weak political will; mixed signals from the Executive Branch; weak institutions, and inadequate adherence to the rule of law; entrenched patronage; weak private sector; weak civil society, and pervasive cynicism.

Weak Political Will/ Mixed Signals from Executive Branch: The Matrix observes that executive commitment to combat corruption was expressed in the last two Presidential Sessional Addresses to the nation. However, the rhetoric has yet to be translated into concrete action. The matrix also recognizes weak official commitment to combating corruption is partly a function of low political efficacy and apathy on the part of citizens.

Weak Institutions/Weak culture of rule of law: The Matrix also observes that government institutions need to be strengthened. In this regard, the Ghana Team notes the existence of government managed institutional and legal reform programs as well as an Annual Governance Forum of the National Institutional Renewal Program. The Team has identified the need to give the National Institutional Renewal Program-which is aimed at reinventing Government an anti- corruption focus, including the establishment of ethics desks or whistle blower units in all public institutions for dealing with cases of conflict of interest and bribery.

The matrix identifies poor financial management as one of the problem areas. Government needs to be more transparent in the use of resources including foreign loans, grants, tax revenue etc. There is the need for stronger parliamentary oversight of government expenditure through the Public Accounts Committee. The Auditor General should be better equipped to enforce sanctions for financial misbehavior. The Government has developed a Medium Term Expenditure Framework to address some of these problems, but this has yet to make an impact.

On the whole, levels of accountability and transparency remain very low in national and sub-national administration. Thus, the planned programs focus on greater access to information, which includes the passage of a Freedom of Information Act and Whistleblowers Act, and the repeal of criminal libel and sedition laws. Greater participation of the public in the work of anti-corruption agencies and in national and local governance processes is also advocated.

Weak civil society/pervasive cynicism/entrenched patronage: The Ghana Team observes that NGOs, CSOs and citizen pressure groups are in a fledgling state. There is inadequate cooperation among them and their institutional management capacity is weak. The Matrix, therefore, advocates the development of the capacity of credible corruption fighting civic bodies. An umbrella organization to oversee the implementation of the national anti- corruption program is desirable. It will also be useful to have a central body such as CHRAJ to coordinate international, domestic and civil society anti-corruption efforts. The civil society-based anti- corruption groups need to have a vanguard body.

The present diagnostic and participatory approach initiated by the World Bank is useful and commendable. Indeed, in developing countries where corruption is systemic, only a systemic approach to the problem would yield positive results. The establishment of a broad-based coalition to curb the problem is a fundamental necessity.

However, the success of this World Bank initiative would depend on the Bank's willingness to give technical and logistic support to oversight and Ombudsman institutions in African countries, which are going to be in the forefront of implementing the matrix. In addition, the World Bank must use its influence to secure greater commitment from Governments to the program, in countries where lack of political will has been identified as a problem.


Intensive public awareness campaign to begin in November, 1999 with the launching of the postal campaign in December 1999 ahead of the National Integrity Workshop and a formal launching of the Ghana Integrity Initiative (GII) in February 2000.

Perceptions of corruption in the delivery of key services-education, health and land-have been conducted in October 1998 and August 1999 by the Center for Democracy and Development (CDD).

More of such surveys will be conducted for areas such as customs, immigration etc. throughout 2000.

The OECD anti-bribery Convention will be highlighted as part of the proposed awareness campaign. It will be also used to generate interest in anti-corruption work among the private sector.

Building a broad national coalition for combating corruption:

Action already began in mid-May to late 1998 with the formation of an ad hoc planning group for the national integrity workshop of October that year. The ad hoc planning group comprised representatives from the Executive Branch/Attorney Generals office, civil society under the auspices of the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ); the formation of a civil society based chapter of Transparency International (TI) the GII in 1999 and the formation of the nucleus of an anti-corruption Ghana Team comprising CHRAJ, Serious Fraud Office (SFO), Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), since 1999.

Generating effective demand for official action to combat corruption in particular by initiating dialogue between national anti-corruption coalition and the Executive Branch and Parliament in November 1999. The ad-hoc planning group had met and presented the report of the October 1998 national integrity workshop to the Vice President.

Actions to promote official transparency will include intensifying the campaign for access to information/Freedom of Information Act as well as the repeal of the Criminal Libel and Sedition laws. Actions already taken on this include IEA round tables where the issue has been extensively analyzed and canvassed. The intensified campaign will be conducted throughout the year 2000.

Pushing for better provisioning and resource for CHRAJ and other official anti-corruption agencies; power for CHRAJ to prosecute for corruption by the end of 2000.

Increased media freedoms and access to information

Implementation Responsibilities

Responsibility for implementation of the programme will be shared between CHRAJ, SFO, GII, IEA, CDD, National Institutional Renewal Programs (NIRP), and religious bodies, National Media Commission (NMC), Ghana Journalists Association (GJA) and the Parliament of Ghana.

CHRAJ will lead the central coordinating coalition.

IEA will lead the round table discussions to highlight legislative reform especially the passage of Freedom of Information Act and Official Secrets Act.

CDD survey capacity should be strengthened

GII should be empowered in public awareness campaigns.

SFO should be directly involved in the legislative processes together with IEA.

Ghana Journalists Association and National Media Commission would coordinate actions to push for repeal of criminal libel and sedition laws, promote media freedoms and access to information.


Logistics for CDD Service Delivery and Corruption perception Surveys (Budget to be provided later, contact E Gyimah-Boadi)

Logistics for launching of Ghana Integrity Initiative (GII), (Contact Yaw Asamoah)

Logistics for CHRAJ led coalition building (Emil Short for budget)

Logistics for IEA round table discussions (Contact George Appenteng and Alhaji Abdullai for budget)

Logistics for intensive public awareness campaigns-TV, radio and poster competition (Contact Yaw Asamoah for budget)

Logistics for key statutory and civil society bodies involved in the program (Budget to be submitted as and when requested)


There was conscious effort to compose an ad-hoc national planning group for the national integrity workshop, which covered all the main institutions of state and civil society. The Minister of Interior and Vice President were keynote speakers at the workshop and the Minister of Local Government played a key liaison role between Government and CHRAJ in planning it. A formal endorsement from the President is being actively pursued.

GII itself comprises CHRAJ, Private Enterprises Foundation (PEF), religious bodies both Christian and Muslim, the media, academics, and opinion leaders.

The Governing Board includes Mr. Emil Short (head of CHRAJ), Dr SKB Asante (former head of UN Center for Transnational Corporations), Bishop Palmer Buckle, (Catholic Bishop of Koforidua), Dr. Angela Ofori Atta (Ghana Medical School), Audrey Gadzekpo (School of Communication Studies, Legon), Prof. Araba Apt (Center for Social Policy Studies), Prof. Eyimah-Boadi( Center for Democracy and Development), Yaw Asamoah (Legal Practitioner), Mauvi Wahab (Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Mission). The Ghana team will consult with the donor community under the auspices of the World Bank.



The prioritisation of the problem areas that need to be tackled with respect to corruption has been divided into five critical areas namely: Rule of Law; Financial Management, Public Pro-curement Systems; Public Sector Reforms and Customs and Revenue. Here below is a short summary of each area of actions taken or to be taken including possible time frames (i.e. short term up to 18 months; medium term up to 4½ years; and long term, 5 years and beyond) and implementation responsibilities. The financial requirements for effective implementation have not been indicated as they require a very detailed study which was not within the team's capacity financially and time- wise to conduct.


The problem of law and order in Kenya relate to an inadequate legal framework and a weak law enforcement system. To address these problems, Government has made a number of institutional interventions. It has established an independent anti- corruption authority, it has facilitated and supported the establishment of a Parliamentary Committee on corruption; there has been estab-lished a Legal Sector Co-ordinating Committee to research and address the multifarious sub-sectoral problems; and there is a specific Judicial Committee implementing identified reforms. More specifically, the issue of inadequate legal framework has to be addressed by reviewing and amending laws with a bearing on the prevention, investigation and prosecution of corruption. It is expected that this exercise can be accomplished in the short term. The implementation responsibility obviously lies with the Government. The country team and civil society will play the role of necessary advocacy for the desired changes. The issue of weak law enforcement agencies has to be tackled by enhanced capacity building, improving remuneration, computerisation, supplies of adequate appropriate equipment, improving record management systems, improving physical facilities, developing code of conduct for leaders and public officials and encourage-ment of high standards and meritocracy in public services. These are measures to be taken in the medium term and long term. Again implementation of these measures is within the domain of Government. Team and civil society can only play an advocacy role and collaborate with Government and other stakeholders to work on a national strategy. The overall effect of addressing the twin problems identified would be a substantial reduction in corruption. The quick wins in this problem area are possibly to be found in the area of formulating an adequate legal framework, developing suitable codes of conduct, preventive education and measures and investigation and prosecution of offenders.


In Kenya, the problems relating to financial management include: inadequate planning and prioritisation of resource use leading to delayed/abandoned projects; inadequate technical manpower and facilities to enable proper accounting and hence hinder corruption; inadequate, unreliable and untimely delivery of budget resources; weak accounting and audit management information systems; disparate audit institutional framework and audit delays; and poor follow-up and implementation of audit reports.

To address the above problems, several measures have been taken by the Government. They include a reinvigorated strategy of decentralization in planning and monitoring public expenditure through a policy called district focus for rural development, introduction of medium term expenditure frameworks (MTEF), moratorium on new projects, prioritisation of ongoing projects, a move from incremental to rationalised budgets, strengthening of financial and accounting systems and their decentralisation, appointment of qualified financial officers for Government ministries, introduction of better cash management practices and increasing the capacity of the Controller and Auditor- General. Actions to be taken by Government to further strengthen financial management include putting in place MTEF to strengthen priori-tisation of resource distribution and the management of public expenditure procedures, harmonisation of audit activities of the Government, staff training and empowering the Parliamentary Finance Committee to play a useful role in rationalising ministerial budgets.

The role that civil society and the team can play in this area is one of advocacy, dissemination of information and monitoring. The quick wins can be recorded only in the identification of delayed/abandoned projects, in proper manpower planning and development, and in updating the relevant schemes of service. The other set of actions can only be carried through in the medi-um and long term. The net effect of all the above measures will be substantial reduction in corruption.


This is an area with many loopholes and is thus a fertile ground for corruption. The problems are a weak institutional framework, a disregard for the system in place; and weak capacity on the part of procurement personnel to understand the system. Knowing that many complaints of corruption emanate from the procurement field, the procurement system has been strengthened lately by reconstituting the Central Tender Board under the chair of a private sector personality, clarifying the functions of ministerial tender boards and upgrading the level of chair and membership; directing that all transactions be through competitive bidding and incorporating members of Parliament and Councillors in District Tender Boards.

To strengthen this area further, it is intended to review all necessary laws and procedures; recast the supplies manual for public bodies to streamline the procurement system, undertake training and capacity building; review service regulations to eliminate areas of potential conflicts of interest; and to identify and blacklist deviant suppliers.

Needless to state, the big actor will be Government. Civil society and the team can only undertake advocacy for better systems, monitor procurement practices, raise pertinent issues and encourage the private sector to develop and abide by necessary codes of conduct. Many of the contemplated measures are amenable to quick Wins and can be implemented in the short term. Indeed only the complete production of new supplies manuals are medium term measures. The implementation of the summarised measures will result in a substantial reduction of corruption.


The failures of public management and Governance in many countries are typified with declining quality of services, inade-quate policy formulation, weak financial management, closed decision making thus leading to misallocation and misappropriation of financial resources among many other ills. The manifestations of public sector failure can be seen by the non- focused core functions of Government creating opportunities for surplus employment; size of the civil service being too large thus leading to inadequate Operational Management (O&M) budgets, hence poor/failed service delivery in every respect; low pay killing motivation of public servants; no specific work ethic and weak training and capacity-building environment; and public sector reform not properly integrated within the economy.

The Kenya Government has endeavoured to address the above problems by, inter alia putting in place a clear institutional framework for public sector reforms including establishment of sectoral reform committees, defining core functions of Government and issuing guidelines on ministerial rationalisation and staff right sizing. Ministries have been reduced from 28 to 15, guidelines have been issued on the proper ratio in the recurrent budget between personnel emoluments and operations and maintenance (O&M) with the intention of moving to 60/40 in the medium term and 50/50 in the long term, a new objective performance appraisal criteria has been developed and the code of regulations is being reviewed to address discipline and other ethical matters. There are a lot of other actions that can and should be implemented as detailed in the matrix. Civil society will play the role of advocacy for implementation of stated polices on rationalisation, right sizing conflict of interest and transparency. The team too will join in the Advocacy and keep monitoring the implementation of various measures. The quick wins might turn out to be in the implementation of the various circulars pertinent to rationalisation and right sizing. This can be done in the short term. In the medium term action is expected in the area of development of code of conduct, implementation of MFEF and the development of a framework for training. In the long term, it is expected that all these reform measures will be implemented and the result will be a leaner more efficient public sector where corruption will be minimal.


Customs and other revenuecollections units of Government, have been areas that have experienced endemic corruption. Some of these problems include under declaration/collection; wrong classification; dumping of goods; bribery of staff; falsification of documents; false exemptions; falsification of export; falsification of import VAT.

The Government has created integrated revenue service by creating the Kenya Revenue Authority. The Government has also registered a number of internationally recognised firms, to undertake pre-shipment inspection; there is surveillance by a Kenya Revenue Authority Transit monitoring Unit (TMU) and in case of default heavy penalties are incurred: the government has also launched the Revenue Protection Service to encourage and educate tax payers on the consequences of tax evasion; and transit fuel has been placed with a special marker such that net-working with Tanzania Revenue Authority and Uganda Revenue Authority can eliminate the problems of dumping.

For successful implementation of the reforms in customs and revenue, the Government is committed to the operational auto-nomy of Kenya Revenue Authority; it intends to finance the automation of Kenya Revenue Authority systems and enhance its capacity to collect revenue and strengthen the judiciary, the Kenya Anti-Corruption Authority and police force so as to prosecute corruption cases expeditiously. On the other hand, the civil society will advocate for the education of members of the public on revenue laws and procedures. The team will undertake advocacy of necessary measures and monitor performance of the stated Government Programmes.


It is evident that most actions will be taken by the Government. Indeed all actions done and proposed to be done by the Government are already identified as part and parcel of its overall framework to increase efficiency and fight corruption in the public sector. As regards civil society, the advocacy and moni-toring role it assumes in the action plan is its daily cup of tea already. The team is a new actor. It has undertaken to do what it thinks it can, given its composition and specific circumstances of Kenya.


From the time the Kenyan team met in Washington to date, we have worked closely in the development of the action matrix, in the brainstorming on possible elements and milestones in the development of a national strategy to combat corruption, and in interesting various stakeholders in the anti-corruption struggle. One of the latest successes by the team was planning for a stake-holders workshop that took place in Nairobi on 17 September 1999. This workshop brought together the Government, the private sector, civil society, the media and Parliament, to dialogue on the strategic plan of the Kenya Anti- corruption Authority and on elements of a successful national strategy to combat corruption. The team hopes it will stick together and collaborate further with other stakeholders in playing a positive role in the fight against corruption.



The Government and people of the Republic of Malawi are proud to associate themselves with the global approach to fighting corruption. Corruption is clearly the number one impediment to development and an enemy of the people, as it frustrates government efforts to eradicate poverty and improve daily lives of the ordinary people. It also results in the misallocation of scarce resources and this hinders economic growth.

In a bid to enhance transparency, accountability and good governance, the Malawi Team, with the support from the Government and other stake holders, came up with matrices and action plans as part of the World Bank's pilot programme for controlling corruption, which is being implemented in seven African countries, including Malawi.

The matrices and action plans which have been developed, cover financial management and procurement, rule of law, customs reform, and civil service reform. The following are the prioritised concrete actions to take or already undertaken as per subject of intervention


  • Formation of the Malawi Revenue Authority
  • Setting up of Anti-Corruption Bureau
  • Setting up of the Transparency International Malawi
  • Launch of a broad-based campaign to build national consensus in improving integrity standards in the public sector
  • Increase civic education on customs and excise matters
  • Conduct investigative journalism workshops
  • Co-ordinate actions of civil society and actions taken by government


  • Awareness campaigns by the Anti-Corruption Bureau
  • Improved conditions of services of judicial officers
  • Media investigations and reports of crime and corruption allegations
  • Train prosecutors and investigators
  • Awareness campaigns against disrespect for court decisions
  • Lobby Government


  • Employment of Directors of Finance in at least five (5) key ministries
  • Introduction of Medium-Term Expenditure Framework
  • Increase the number of institutions to implement Integrated Financial Management System
  • Manpower development training
  • Establishment for the policy makers and the public
  • Mobilization of the professional organisations and civil society


  • Establishment of a high-level commission of enquiry on contract awards
  • Passing of National Construction Industry Act
  • Conduct a National Integrity Workshop
  • Timely approval and implement the recommendations made by the commission of enquiry on contract awards
  • Media training on investigative journalism to expose fraud and corruption
  • Concerted publicity of corrupt practices that come to light



Corruption is as old as human history itself. However in Tanzania, it can be traced back to about 1980, some twenty years after self-rule. It grew to such an extent that it impacted all social and economic activities in a most fundamental way, negating development in almost all sectors.

For this reason, the fight against corruption became the election manifesto of President Benjamin William Mkapa in October 1995 who, on coming to power, appointed a commission in preparing a report ("The Warioba Report") on the state of corruption in Tanzania. This report was completed in December 1996 and was immediately made public.

The report indicated that corruption both of the "petty type" (e.g. involving traffic police) and of the "grand type" (e.g. involving public tenders) was both widespread and rampant. Worst culprits were in the judiciary and the police. It was a case of corrupt politics impinging on the nation's economic performance.

Efforts to combat corruption in government institutions were therefore put in place and this included, amongst others, removal of corrupt elements who held leadership positions. In addition, significant strengthening of the Prevention of Corruption Bureau was put underway. It was soon realized that an holistic approach involving all other stakeholders was needed. To demonstrate political will the head of state appointed a Minister of State responsible for Good Governance who, I believe, is here with us today. This is in clear testimony of his endorsement of the anti- corruption measures being presented here.

By March 1999 the Tanzanian Government embarked on formulating a National Anti-Corruption Strategy through involvement of government ministries, NGOs, the private sector, civic associations, donors, the media, religious organizations and so forth. This strategy document sets out an anti-corruption programme covering all sectors and dealing with key elements of prevention, enforcement, raising public awareness and institution building.

The strategy is predicated on a steadfast political will as well as sufficient resource allocation for implementation. It needs crucial support from the donor community, the media, the civil and the private sector. Above all, for the strategy to succeed, the political will and the support has to be sustained throughout the implementation phase.

In regard to donors, we welcome their support and in particular we are much encouraged by the stance of the World Bank Group. Indeed, it is worth mentioning that some months ago, Mr. James Wolfensohn, the World Bank president circulated a discussion draft of a paper entitled "A Proposal for a Comprehensive Development Framework" to board, management and staff of the World Bank group. This document singled out corruption as a major development constraint in most developing countries including Africa.

The countries of Southern Africa Development Countries (SADC) have already held round table meetings on anti-corruption measures which are needed. Also, the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) is on the forefront in coordinating a regional approach to home-grown anti-corruption initiatives in all countries of Africa.

In June 1999, at a stage when Tanzania's National Anti- Corruption Strategy was well advanced, the World Bank Institute invited from Tanzania a team of 5 members (the "Country Team") drawn from government, media, business and civic associations to meet in Washington their counterpart Country Teams from BENIN, ETHIOPIA, GHANA, KENYA, MALAWI and UGANDA. The meeting was in the form of a course in Controlling Corruption through an Integrated Strategy. Thereafter, video-conferencing sessions took place in respective countries to cover Rule of Law, Financial Management & Procurement, Customs, and Civil Service. These deliberations brought out the need to apply diagnostic tools and procedures designed to control corruption. They also highlighted the importance of coalition building through forging alliances and partnerships by involving all the stakeholders so as to have an integrated approach on problem areas of corruption. These include Reform of Public Sector Institutions, competition through Demonopolization, & Privatisation, Financial Discipline, Rule of Law, enhancing Public Awareness, assuring delivery of Public Services etc. Several quick-wins were also identified.

The similarity of the state of corruption in these seven African countries was astounding.

The course in Washington and the subsequent V-C sessions emphasized the importance of taking the concept of "political will" as one which transcends top leadership so as to include all the stakeholders through an empowerment process.

These very same sentiments were echoed in a Workshop convened last month to internalize Tanzania's Anti-Corruption Strategy by giving ownership to civil society and the private sector. During this Workshop, coalition building, stakeholder involvement and use of diagnostic survey results were seen, through political will, as key elements which underpin an integrated approach to control corruption.

The outcome of all these is a form of Strategy Matrices. These provide a summary of the main problem areas of the anti-corruption measures given in the National Anti-Corruption Strategy setting out actions already taken, as well as prioritization of actions needed to be taken to yield expected results on short, medium and long terms.

These matrices therefore need to be taken up in follow-on workshops and these are planned for the implementation, monitoring and evaluation tasks ahead. It is important to note that in every problem area, the beneficiaries are the corrupt whereas the innocent, the poor and the weak lose out. At a national level, corrupt elements both exploit poverty and maintains it. However, corruption is not confined to national or regional boundaries. It is global.

In global terms, Grand Corruption is already a "big business" in which greedy business leaders and high-ranking government officials collude with increasing sophistication. Tanzania's National Strategy seeks to dismantle this "big business" on the premise that petty corruption will die a natural death.

This is a daunting task requiring sustained application of strong curative and preventive anti-corruption measures in partnership with regional and international initiatives. It will also need substantial resource utilisation including the upliftment of the Prevention of Corrupt Bureau as a strong autonomous state organ.

Backed as we are by top national leadership, with much of the background diagnostic survey work already completed and with a homegrown National Anti-Corruption Strategy also in place, we believe that Tanzania is well set to take on the scourge of corruption.

I will now very briefly highlight the priority areas of the Tanzania's Strategy Matrices as follows:

  • Rule of Law: to create conditions which can restore confidence in the judiciary services and law enforcement agencies.
  • Financial Discipline: reduce siphoning of public funds and increase revenue collection to enable financing social services.
  • Procurement: strict adherence to and transparent administration of tendering procedures.
  • Public Awareness: to create awareness of how corruption harms the economy and ultimately transforms the fabric of society.
  • Public Service: to recognise that public officers are not "masters" but "servants" accountable for their actions (who therefore deserve a fair remuneration package).
  • Media:to report corrupt elements without fear or favour and to publicize the harm they do to the innocent, the poor and the weak in Tanzania.




Weak law enforcement system--weak investigation, prosecution and adjudication.

Suggestions to tackle these problems:

  • Government is to conduct a diagnostic study into weaknesses of the judicial system; obtain benchmarks and best practice among countries of comparable level; further strengthening of law enforcement agencies through training, payment of adequate salaries, etc.
  • Civil society plans to conduct awareness raising campaigns; work on strengthening NGOs individually and through coordination; and continue to expose corruption in the media and/or through religious bodies, cultural leaders and institutions.
  • The Country Team strategy is continue to put pressure on the Government to implement what it has not yet done as well as coordinating the activities of civil society.


Problem: Lack of integrated accountability and auditing of Government and donor funds; lack of public awareness of the importance of a sound financial management system; and lack of a accountable and prioritized budgetary processes.

Suggestions to tackle the problems:

  • Government is to integrate all internal audit units within government; ensure budgetary processes obey rules of public expenditure management; and institute clear grading and remuneration procedures as well as introduce work ethic.
  • Civil Society is to lobby Government to allocate resources transparently; and collaborate with professional accounting bodies to improve work and professional ethics.
  • Country Team plans to monitor the progress of IFMs to ensure issue is included in national strategy; work with Government to improve prioritization process; and finalize framework and seek dialogue with national professional association.


Problem:Weak procurement systems--weak laws and regulations as well as lack of trained personnel to conduct competent procurement evaluations.

Suggestions totackle the problems:

  • Government to support the procurement process with training and equipment; Minister of Finance to consult with all stakeholders; ensure transparency and accountability in programs; anti-corruption agencies to agree on recommendations to cabinet; and evaluation committee to be managed by professionals of integrity.
  • Civil Society to publicize the laws and regulations in the media; nominate and vet the Evaluation Committee members; identify and publicize the experience and qualifications of individuals and firms in their respective fields.
  • Country Team to ensure that the anti-corruption agencies meet and make recommendations; seek technical and financial assistance from donors to implement programs, and pressure government to solve the problem in the procurement regulations.


Problem: Lack of adequate collaboration between Uganda Revenue Authorities, the Ministry of Finance and policy makers on tax rates and restrictions, as well as lack of public participation when setting up trade policies.

Suggestions to tackle the problems:

  • Government to form consultative committee between Ministry of Finance and Uganda Revenue Authority to discuss tax proposals for the budget.
  • Civil Society to launch a broad-based campaign to raise public awareness on taxes; encourage government to include other stakeholders in the Consultative Committee--importers and exporters; and the public should be made aware of the tax tribunal and it should be decentralized.
  • Country Team to coordinate the activities of civil society and monitor the actions taken by Government; and identify operational and administrative bottlenecks in action plans to facilitate effective implementation.

return to table of contents