The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference
TOWARDS COLLECTIVE ACTION TO IMPROVE GOVERNANCE AND CONTROL CORRUPTION
IN SEVEN AFRICAN COUNTRIES
Work-in-Progress by the Country Teams of: Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda
Prepared as background for the 9th Annual International Conference Against Corruption, Durban, South Africa 10-15 October 1999
Support to this Action Program Formulation through WBI's Core Course "Controlling Corruption: Towards an Integrated Strategy," June- September 1999
This volume was produced in September 1999 by the Governance, Finance and Regulatory Group at World Bank Institute (WBI), and teams representing seven countries in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda) as part of the Core Course Program, "Controlling Corruption: Towards an integrated strategy", and in preparation for the 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference in Durban, South Africa, October 10th -15th 1999.
For additional information on this and other related programs, visit
WBI's Governance and Anti-Corruption Website at:
"From what you have just told me, it sounds like an interesting concept and approach; instead of starting with 'conditionalities' from outside you are working with country participants on the formulation of their own governance program. But what if their program is wrong?"
While the above reaction to the explanation of the approach taken in this pilot governance and anticorruption program is atypical (as illustrated in the contrasting quotes inside this document), it does reflect a measure of skepticism among some in the western financial international community about doing business differently. Fully empowering a coalition within the country to take the lead, while relegating ourselves to a facilitating role does not always come as second nature. Yet even if we now believe in this 'facilitator mindset', modesty and realistic expectations are in order when looking ahead. Indeed, many 'Anti-Corruption Campaigns' as well as externally and conditionality-driven public sector reforms have not been successful over the past two decades. But embarking on a new approach in itself does not ensure success either. Empowerment and participatory coalition-building within the country is a necessary condition for governance-enhancing institutional reforms, yet it is unlikely to suffice.
Technical rigour is also key, for which the two- way transfer of knowledge and shared learning plays an important role - including the use of the latest Distance Learning (e.g. multi-site videoconferencing) technologies. In this context, an in-depth understanding of the country reality, including empirical analysis of the governance challenges, is needed for the country experts and stakeholders to formulate reform measures which are concrete, prioritized and implementable. The systematic sharing of country experiences as well as the collaboration on the new toolkits and approaches with the World Bank and donor community is an important feature of the current program. Similarly, the increasing recognition that corruption is a symptom of more fundamental weaknesses in country institutions plays an important role in focusing on concrete action programs where prevention and incentives are at least as important as enforcement. Within this context, a key challenge is to integrate an anticorruption and governance initiative within the country's program for building capacity and for reforming the institutions of the public sector.
Political will is also paramount, of course. Yet in the countries we are working on we have been persuaded by many dynamic and committed reformists inside and outside of government that one should not take the notion of 'political will' as a --static or insurmountable-- 'given'. The enhanced will to embark on governance changes to improve the lives of the common citizen can be nurtured; within countries often labeled by outsiders as 'lacking political will' the progress made by citizen groups and reformists does illustrate.
The process and program presented in this draft volume reflects collaborative work-in-progress by experts in the countries, partners outside (such as TI) and at the World Bank. They have drawn on their past experiences, on their recently shared country lessons and on the ongoing process in this program. The responsibility for the implementation of the agenda resides with the country's own leadership and its key stakeholders. We have been encouraged by the passion and dedication of the country teams in this program underway already for a number of months, detailed in this document. Yet the lion share of the challenge of institutional change, while underway in some countries, still lies ahead. Those countries committed to such systemic change deserve our support. President Wolfensohn is behind this initiative and has pledged to convene a meeting within the year to assess implementation progress. As many of the country participants have noted, 'it takes two to tangle': they are challenging us to continually facilitate this process of change in their own countries, as well as in ensuring that the disincentives for foreign investors to engage in corrupt practices abroad are raised significantly and donor- financed projects provide an example in transparency and probity.
The equal emphasis and integration of process and substance ought to be regarded as paramount in formulating a realistic anti-corruption action program. This substantive process can be categorized into three main components successful anti-corruption programs need to integrate: (a) rigorous information/data and knowledge; (b) political leadership; and (c) collective action. Currently, a new effort in formulation of anti-corruption programs is taking place for seven countries in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda).
The new approach has the following key features:
Broad-based Participation, Country Leadership, and Empirical Rigour
QUOTABLE QUOTES IN A PARTICIPATORY AND UN-HIERARCHICAL FASHION
John Githongo, Kenya Team:
Bakili Muluzi, President of Malawi:
Edward Hoseah, Director of Investigation, Prevention of Corruption
Luis Moreno Ocampo, Head of Transparency International, Latin America:
James D. Wolfensohn, World Bank President:
"[This first phase of the participatory program in Washington] was really a fabulous week in which the issue of corruption was addressed in these seven countries, a fascinating exercise which is even more interesting because additional modules are now being given by satellite to these same people twice a week over the coming weeks. The initiative taken here in Washington is now being extended in the countries themselves, and then, finally, we'll all come back together again for the presentations which will be made at a conference in Durban later this year. From the July 1999 'Journal of the President' with highlights from the previous month.
Emile Francis Short, Commissioner, Commission on Human Rights and
Administrative Justice, Ghana:
Theodore Ahlers, World Bank Country Director for Benin:
Participant from Tanzania:
Robert McNamara, Former President of the World Bank, and full participant in
Participant from Uganda:
Joseph Stiglitz, Chief Economist of the World Bank:
Participant from Kenya:
Jan Jorgensen, Faculty of Management and
Strategy Advisor, McGill University, Montreal
Participant from Ethiopia:
Participant from Benin:
Participant from Malawi:
Maximilien Sossou-Gloh of Benin Team:
Mr. Lucien Aristide Deguenon of Benin Team:
Professor Medard Rwelamira, Head, Policy Unit, Department of Justice,
Vinod Thomas, Director, WBI
TOWARDS COLLECTIVE ACTION TO IMPROVE GOVERNANCE AND CONTROL CORRUPTION
IN SEVEN AFRICAN COUNTRIES
The [Empty] Worksheet at the outset of the program
BUT BUILDING ON PAST EXPERIENCE AND ON OTHER'S EXPERIENCES
STARTING AFRESH AND BUILDING ON PAST EXPERIENCE AND OTHER'S EXPERIENCES
The common perception is that while countries have initiated programs to fight corruption, the result to date is at best mixed. While lack of resources, personal, and top political support are to blame, the process, design, and implementation strategy of anti-corruption programs should also be questioned. In particular, many programs have been tightly controlled within an agency of the government, with little or no involvement from civil society, the media, private sector and parliaments. All too often, little effort at initiating a consensus-building approach towards a cooperative action has taken place. Where civil society has figured in the program, their involvement has after been parallel to the government, not joint, and focused on awareness raising. Thus many programs have lacked broad- based support, and focused heavily on government-run (and often weak)enforcement mechanisms to combat corruption, instead of a broad- based preventative, incentive and systemically-based strategy.
The participatory program "Controlling Corruption: Towards an integrated approach" attempts to counter this trend by suggesting a different approach to combating corruption and improving governance more broadly. The program (strictly speaking a 'course') started in June 1999 with a diverse group of stakeholders from seven countries in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda) representing the government, independent commissions, civil society, and media, which gathered face-to-face for an intensive and interactive week of shared learning in Washington, D.C. The World Bank Institute organized, facilitated and provided toolkits and information, while the teams took the actual lead in beginning to formulate participatory anti-corruption programs for their countries.
Most of the participating countries already have ongoing programs in place, which is mirrored in the participants' accumulated knowledge of what works and what does not in anti-corruption. Starting afresh-in fact with the empty matrix shown on the previous page-yet at the same time building on their past experience, the teams have initiated an ambitious undertaking to institute sustainable changes in an area that has, to date, been difficult to realize tangible results. Similarly, they have benefited from building on each other's experiences.
Since the workshop in Washington D.C., the process of designing an integrated and participatory action program to fight corruption has continued, fueled by a continuos series of distance learning videoconferences where subject-experts have shared their experience of best-practice in institutional reform (rule of law, financial manage- ment and procurement; taxation and customs; civil service reform). This document illustrates what has been achieved in the participating countries (and country teams) as of end of September 1999; the course outline; joint recommendations, and the country teams' own views on the process.
CONTROLLING CORRUPTION AND IMPROVING GOVERNANCE: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED
AND PARTICIPATORY STRATEGY
The costs of corruption and misgovernance are enormous. However, practitioners, public sector managers, senior advisers, legislators, and civil society leaders are rarely exposed to an in-depth understanding of the multiple dimensions and determinants of corruption nor to practical alternatives to improving governance. This course aims at closing the gap by:
Traditional anti-corruption courses are based on two different approaches to the problem of corruption. One type emphasizes the analytical understanding of the problem; that is, corruption is ultimately a symptom of weak institutions and poor policies. Thus, addressing corruption effectively means addressing under-lying economic, political and institutional causes. The second type of course is more proactive, dealing with the process of awareness raising, mobilization and civil society involvement in the fight against corruption.
This course combines the two approaches into an integrated framework. A key component of the course is to provide the participants with the necessary toolkit to enable them to design a coherent anti-corruption strategy that is tailored to their country's specific institutional and political realities. Through a series of interactive sessions, participants work together as country teams through the process of designing an anti-corruption strategy and discuss the challenges of integrating the participatory process with concrete institutional reforms.
The course is being piloted in Africa, starting in June 1999. It will then be replicated in other regions (South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe) beginning with Latin America in April 2000.
The primary goal of the course is to provide the tools to develop a participatory and integrated action program of institutional re-forms to combat corruption. It will expose the participants to best practices and provide hands-on experience through learning-by-doing exercises. As an integral part of the course, participants' own experiences with anti-corruption work and design will be reviewed. A variety of instructional activities including lectures, 'instant surveys,' working groups, panels, and field visits, will provide the participants with the methods to initiate, prepare and implement a participatory strategy of institutional reforms.
This pilot course is intended for senior policy makers, public officials, legislators, private sector and key representatives from civil society with responsibilities for design, preparation and im-plementation of an anti-corruption strategy. In the first offering in June-October 1999, seven African countries are invited to participate. The course will be replicated in other regions. Each course will include representatives from 5-7 countries who will work intensively as teams.
COURSE CONTENTThe program is divided into four inter-linked phases over a period of four months. The last phase-implementation-is not covered within the 'course' itself, but is included in the overall architecture since it maps out the logical next steps in the action program. Moreover, follow-up support for such implementation is provided. A diagrammatic synthesis of the overall architecture of the course is provided in the figure below.
To illustrate the overall architecture of this integrated program, the first course offering includes the following:
In the first phase the participants were provided with the conceptual outline of an anti-corruption strategy, as well as the fundamental steps in design and implementation of an action plan. As an integral part of the first phase, the participants' own experiences were discussed, and the pros and cons of existing anti-corruption programs were analyzed. A preliminary matrix of anti-corruption plans will be developed by each country team.
The second phase is being delivered through distance learning techniques to the seven predetermined countries. Building on the initial action plan developed in Phase 1, the participants are refining the blueprint to encompass prioritized areas of institutional reforms (financial management and procurement, rule of law, customs reform and civil service reform). During this second phase, each country team is being supported by experts travelling to the participating countries to facilitate the action program design. Additional feedback and technical support is being provided through videoconferences. The span between the first and third phase is also giving the participants time to discuss the action plan with a broad spectrum of relevant stakeholders in their country and also to ensure broader ownership of the proposed strategy.
The workshop constituting the third phase will be part of the 9th International Conference Against Corruption (IACC). In the workshop, the participants will present their action program developed throughout the course. During the conference the teams will have the opportunity for peer review, interaction regarding shared experience, and the opportunity to discuss possible strategies regarding the next steps required for implementation, in collaboration with a broader constituency of domestic stakeholders and external partners.
PHASE 1: THE PROCESS
Face-to-face event in Washington, D.C., 14-18 June 1999
Day 1: Impact and How Corruption Affects Your Country
Session 1. Introduction, Welcome and Keynote speech
A senior World Bank official welcomed the participants. Review of course activities, agenda, and materials.
Session 2. Overview of an Action Program and Participant Expectations
This session briefly described the course outline. The course is being based on a holistic strategy to combat corruption, combining various components into an integrated approach. Key components include: managing an action program, diagnostics, prioritization, dissemination, political will, institution-specific diagnosis, reform measures, implementation plans and monitoring systems. This session also reviewed the participants' expectations of the course and possible follow-up support.
Session 3. Designing Anti-Corruption Programs: The Participants' Experience
A selected group of participants shared their experience in designing anti-corruption programs. What has worked, what has not, and why? What are the common features? What are the pros and cons of existing programs? Have they been implemented? The session stressed the potential gains of integrating existing components in anti-corruption efforts into a holistic strategy to fight corruption, as well as the importance of utilizing an incentive-driven approach focusing on prevention and not only tackling the symptoms.
Session 4. Why Combat Corruption?
Evidence suggests that economic, social and political costs of corruption are very large. The module reviewed existing cross-country data on corruption and its correlates, emphasizing the fact that corruption ultimately is a symptom of weak institutions and poor policies. Thus, addressing corruption effectively means ad-dressing underlying economic, political and institutional causes. Finally, the session provided an overview of the participating countries' institutional arrangements and perceptions of corruption.
Session 5. Initiating a program to fight corruption
Using a case study country teams discussed the underlying causes of corruption, the critical consequences of not curbing corrupt practices, and the political feasibility of anti-corruption efforts.
Day 2: Tools and Processes for Diagnostics and Design
Session 6. Diagnostics: Overview of survey approach
This session discussed how empirical surveys can provide information needed to develop an anti-corruption program. Specifically, the session will examine how empirical tools can be used to: · identify shortcomings in a country's policies and institutions
Session 7. Diagnostics: Expert assessment
This session presented another method to identify concerns related to a country's policies and institutions. It reviewed how the method can be used to elicit operational data for program design. Recent assessments of countries' political and institutional structures were described and discussed. The session also discussed ways to integrate expert assessments with diagnostic surveys.
Session 8. From diagnostics to design
In small discussion groups, participants were given simulated survey results and the task of analyzing the data and interpreting it in terms of general trends and themes. Participants then prepared a matrix which identified priority areas for inclusion in an anti- corruption action plan. The matrix incorporated statements about the costs of corruption implied by the data, and identified the specific areas that will initially be targeted in the action plan along with a rationale for selecting the particular areas for reform.
Day 3: Coalition Building
Session 9. Involvement processes: civil society, private sector, parliament and the media
There is clear evidence that participation in development projects plays an important role in reducing corruption. Thus, involve-ment of key stakeholders does not have a value only in itself; it can also increase efficiency in design and implementation. This session reviewed participatory tools such as national workshops and information campaigns, and discussed how data on corruption can be utilized for awareness raising, coalition building and mobilization of constituencies for reform.
Session 10. Anti-corruption institutions and agencies: role, impact, and who should run them
There are several types of anti-corruption institutions around the world. This session reviewed the experience of a number of them, including anti-corruption commissions; oversight committees; watchdog agencies; auditor generals and ombudsmen; and discussed the circumstances in which they work, those in which they do not work, and the reasons why they do not. The session also addressed how the work of existing anti-corruption bodies could be incorporated into an overall strategy to fight corruption.
Session 11. Political will
This session reviewed tools to mobilize and sustain political will. It will discussed methods of coalition building to foster politicians' willingness to reform, and policy options available when political commitment is lacking. Tools to assess key stakeholders' incentives for reform in general, and anti-corruption efforts in particular, were provided.
Session 12. Revision of the action plan
In small discussion groups, participants were given an opportunity to revise their matrices to fit their country's institutional and political realities. Involvement processes and dissemination plans were integrated into the country-specific matrices, and discussed in a plenary session.
Day 4: Agency-Specific Surveys and Monitoring Strategies
Session 13. Agency-specific surveys and other tools
This session focused on agency-specific diagnostic tools for collecting data on corruption, including public expenditure reviews and tracking studies, and price comparisons (users' costs of public services). The session also identified existing data in order to establish benchmarks to guide reform.
Session 14. Monitoring techniques
Monitoring government bodies in general, and the reform program in particular, are key components in a successful anti- corruption strategy. This session discussed specific monitoring tools that can provide continuous inputs for governance improvement and reform.
Session 15. Final integration and summary
During this session, participants completed the matrix. This matrix included a conceptual framework in which the priorities and sequencing of the components were identified. The processes and tools discussed in the course were mapped into a strategy to combat corruption in the participants' countries. In a plenary session, group matrices were presented and discussed.
Day 5: Field visit and Closing of the First Phase
Session 16. Enforcement Agencies
The benefits of certain law enforcement and prevention approaches currently being used by different agencies were discussed. Furthermore, the techniques and the methodologies employed by enforcement agencies (such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Serious Fraud Office (U.K.), and Contrôle de Corruption (France)) to address the problem of corruption were reviewed. The FBI provided a tour for the participants at FBI headquarters.
PHASE 2: INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
The second phase was delivered during a four-week span, with two distance learning events each week. Four key subject areas were covered: Rule of Law, Financial Management and Procure-ment, Civil Service Reform and Customs Reform. The modules focused on crucial aspects of anti-corruption. Each module fol-lowed a given structure: First, a case study was presented; small group discussions followed. The participants were then expected to incorporate new insights about causes, tools, policy actions, policy impact and expected results into the matrix they initiated in Phase 1. Each country team was supported by experts who traveled to the participating countries to facilitate the action program design. Finally the matrices were presented and discussed.
Module 1. Rule of Law
Session 1: Case study presentation
Reform and modernization of the rule of law is a cornerstone of a successful anti-corruption strategy. One of the key requirements of an effective rule of law is that it reflects actual social behavior and serves as an effective mean of societal control to avoid corruption. This session provided the analytical framework and relevant measures for reforming and improving the rule of law. Based on a case study, this module promoted the understanding and identification of common institutional patterns found in different countries suffering from systemic corruption. The session identified policy measures related to the rule of law to be adopted in the fight against corruption. The session also developed the participants' capacity to build strategic and tactical anti- corruption policies for the improvement of rule of law in a country. Selected topics included:
Session 2: Presentations of the matrices
Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to reform and improve the rule of law and reduce corruption. Each group also provided feedback on the module and matrices.
Module 2. Financial Management and Procurement
Session 1. Financial Management
One of the most powerful anti-corruption devices is the simple establishment of sound financial management practices, including a timely and efficient accounting system combined with punctual, professional reviews by internal and external independent auditors. The major issue is how to integrate basic financial management functions and responsibilities into a coordinated single system. This session described how such an integrated system provides a powerful tool to fight corruption. Specific points included:
Session 2. Procurement
Procurement is an area prone to corruption. This session identified best innovative tools and experiences to strengthen the procurement system. Specific topics included:
Session 3: Presentations of the matrices
Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to strengthen the financial management and procurement systems and reduce corruption. Each group was also provided with feedback on the module and matrices.
Module 3. Customs Reform
Session 1. Customs Reform
Empirical evidence suggests that complex and non-transparent trade regulations are related to corruption. Monopoly power and discretion of customs officials, combined with selective information sharing with the private sector, tend to create incentives for corruption. This session reviewed recent attempts to reform customs. Some of the topics addressed included:
Session 2: Presentations of the action plans
Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to reform customs and reduce corruption. Each group also provided feedback on the module and matrices.
Module 4. Civil Service Reform
Session 1. Case Study on Civil Service Reform
In many countries the civil service is characterized by rigid structures, clientelism, poor pay and conditions, and non-merit based systems of appointment and promotion. Apart from inefficiency and poor service quality, these characteristics have favored another major source of civil service dysfunction-corruption. But reforms in public sector management, being introduced in a number of countries, have the potential to reduce corruption and may be of central importance in anti-corruption strategies. The reforms to be examined included:
Session 2: Presentations of the matrices
Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to reform public sector management and reduce corruption. Each group also provided feedback on the module and matrices.
Optional Post-Session Modules on Anti-Corruption
To further tailor the course to country-specific demands, the participants (or country groups) were given the opportunity to choose two modules from a pre-determined list of anti-corruption-related subjects to be delivered through a series of video-conferences. The modules included:
PHASE 3: WORKSHOP
The third phase will involve the preparation and presentation of the action program for the International Conference Against Corruption. During the conference, the teams will have the opportunity to present and discuss their action programs, share experiences, and discuss next steps for implementation with key stakeholders and external partners.
NEXT COURSE DELIVERY
This course will be replicated in other regions (South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe), beginning with Latin America in April 2000.
The course is being organized by the World Bank. The faculty includes academics and practitioners involved in different facets of anti-corruption. The complete list of Resource Team Members can be found below.
In addition, interactive participation is taking place with the President of the World Bank, James D. Wolfensohn, the Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, Joseph E. Stiglitz, the former President of the World Bank, Robert S. McNamara, and the Director of the World Bank Institute, Vinod Thomas.
Program Task Managers: Maria Gonzalez de Asis and Jakob Svensson
Distance Learning Manager: Donald MacDonald
Senior Manager: Daniel Kaufmann
THE WORLD BANK INSTITUTE WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE PARTICIPANTS OF "CONTROLLING CORRUPTION: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED STRATEGY" JUNE-OCTOBER 1999
Ms. Anne Cica Adjai
Mr. Fulbert Amoussouga Gero
Mr. Lucien Aristide Deguenon
Ms. Felicienne Guinikoukou Padonou
Mr. Maximilien Gregorie Sossou-Gloh
H.E. Weredewold Menshu Woldie
Mr. Yehwalashet Kassa Abagelan
Ms. Enwoy Gebremedihn Abera
Mr. Teshome Gabre-Mariam Bokan
Mr. Kifle Telga Kebede
Mr. Hailu Berhe Tsaedu
Mr. Alhaji Muhammad Abdullah
Dr. George Apenteng
Mr. Emile Short
Mr. John Githongo
Ms. Betty Chemutai Maina
Mr. James Elvis Omariba Ongwae
Mr. Job Osiako ,
Mr. Edward Akongo Oyugi
Hon. Justice Aaron G. Ringera
Ms. Patricia Jim Chirwa
Mr. Gilton Chiwaula,
Mr. John Kapito Executive Director; Consumers Association of Malawi
Mr. Kamudoni Nyasulu
Mr. Sudhir J. Chavda
Mr. Edward Hoseah
Ms. Betty Massanja
Ms. Mariam Joy Mwaffisi
UGANDAMs. Mary Buhamizo
Information Officer, Directorate of Ethics and Integrity
Mr. Richard Buteera
Mr. Erich Opolot Ogoso
Mr. Jotham Tumwesigye
Mr. Mathias Bazongoza Tumwesigye
SPECIAL PARTICIPANT FROM SOUTH AFRICA
PROGRAM'S RESOURCE TEAM
Resources and Partners:
Roberto de Michele
Rafael Di Tella
Jit Bahadur Gill
Luis Moreno Ocampo
Phase 1 Action Planning Facilitators
Phase 2 Distance Learning Organizers and Site Coordinators
Aberash Merid Begashaw
Margaret Boateng Sekyere
The Support and Facilitation of the Country Directors, Resident Representatives, and their field offices staff is appreciatedINSERTS
MULTI-COUNTRY TECHNICAL VISITS TO SUPPORT THE CORE COURSE PROGRAM PHASE 2 (DISTANCE LEARNING)
Technical support missions were undertaken by Sahr Kpundeh, Roberto de Michelle and Jack Titsworth in support of Phase 2 (which im-mediately precedes the 9th Annual Anti-Corruption Conference in Durban, South Africa) of the multi-country Core Course pro-cess that began in Washington in June, 1999. The Africa Region of the World Bank and WBI have been supporting the seven participating African countries (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) by providing technical assistance in the following areas:
PURPOSE OF THE MISSIONS
The purpose of the missions in August 1999 was the following:
The technical details on the survey were finalized, and the Institute of Research at the Addis Ababa University has been selected as the local group to conduct the survey. The sample size was designated as the following: 2,400 households, 600 business enterprises, and 1,000 public officials. This survey will cover all nine states and in addition to English, the questionnaire will be translated into the following local dialects: Amharic, Tigrinia, Oromina, Hariri, Somali, and Afar.
KACA felt its strategic plan to fight corruption in Kenya needed more professional input and hired a consulting company to develop the plan further. The Core Team will be given the opportunity to provide significant input before presenting it at the Durban Conference. Team members also endorsed the idea that after the consultants finished compiling the documents, it will be sent to all stakeholders including the private sector for their input. The results of this will be a draft Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Kenya which will be the basis of a National Workshop in December, 1999.
Individual members of the Core Team are proceeding with their work in terms of involving other stakeholders. For example, the Social Development Network, (which is a coalition of eight NGOs), conducted a corruption survey and collected data on the judiciary, education and health sectors. They are planning to publish the data hoping it will throw light on the problem of corruption in these sectors and means of addressing it. The Futa Magendo's (Action Network) are organizing grassroots campaigns and workshops addressing service delivery issues in all sectors.
Throughout the Mission's meetings with the Kenyan Team, it was consistently reiterated that the initiative by WBI to bring the parties together in Washington highlighted their realization that collaborative efforts are necessary in order to be successful. They are currently working together in defining a comprehensive action program for Kenya-all stakeholders are providing their input to a national anti-corruption strategy, which was previously unheard of.
The process in Kenya is now self-driven and the "team" commitment is quite high, especially since it is a good mix of government and civil society representatives, as well as those from the private sector. The commitment of the Head of KACA to attend the Core Course on anti- corruption in Washington was a good sign for the agency's anti- corruption efforts. After returning from the first phase of the course, the Head of KACA briefed the President, Daniel Arap Moi, who, the Mission was informed, was happy that the possibility of engaging other actors when necessary now exists.
The Mission also met with other stakeholders-members of the media as well as the Chair of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Anti-Corruption in Kenya. Media representatives informed the Mission that they were conducting training pro-grams in investigative reporting to help build a cadre of credible journalists and reporters. The Chairman of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Anti-Corruption in Kenya informed the Mission of his collaborative work with the Head of KACA in promoting the anti- corruption agenda in Kenya. He will be traveling to Durban to participate in the 9th IACC as well as the follow-up workshop being organized by WBI on "Challenges to building coalitions in the fight against corruption in Africa."
After the first phase of the course, the Team members focused their attention on revising their country matrices and integrating them into the national anti- corruption program. However, it was evident throughout the meetings that the anti-corruption program in the country is still very much government-driven. For example, the anti-corruption agencies meet once every month to discuss the action plan but do not include representatives from civil society in their discussions. The Mission encouraged the government agencies to be more inclusive in their approach and pointed out that lasting anti-corruption reforms are more about building coalitions. The Inspector General of Government informed the Mission of the various steps he is taking to be more inclusive, including organizing a conference in September which will bring together both government and civil society.
Most of the discussions with the Ugandan Team revolved around making its anti- corruption program more inclusive of non-traditional stakeholder groups. The Government already had an anti-corruption action plan in place before the Country Team arrived in Washington for the first phase. This plan was designed by Government with no input from civil society.
The Team members from the government are now trying to adjust to the realities of the new participative approach which emphasizes the involvement of all stakeholders and promotes the idea of coalition-building among stakeholders in effecting an anti-corruption strategy.
Team members agreed to use the matrix they have been working on collectively to revise and fine-tune their current national anti- corruption program. The final meeting with the Team members was held in the office of the Minister of Ethics and Integrity. She informed the Mission of the Government's com-mitment to dealing with corruption and encouraged the Team to work on refining its matrix so that Uganda could show that their action program was the collective work of all the stakeholders during the conference in Durban.
The mission met with the Country Team members who had also arranged separate meetings with various stakeholders. The idea behind these meetings was to get the input from the stakeholders to help revise the country matrix as well as to provide the Mission with the opportunity of explaining the new WBI ap-proach. They also wanted to know about the progress of the other countries the Mission had already visited. In short, the Country Team thought it would be easier to get broad stakeholder support for the new approach and establish a serious commitment to collaborate if the Mission was given audience with the various stakeholders. Therefore, meetings were scheduled with the Chief Secretary in the Office of the President, legal practitioners, the Association of Journalists and Media Workers, civil society, procurement experts, the Tangayika Law Society, the Head of the Civil Service Reform Commission, the Commissioner General of the Tanzania Revenue Authority, and the Executive Director of the National Income Generation Programme, as well as senior staff members at the Resident Mission.
It was evident from the meetings that there is serious commitment on the part of both Government and civil society to make inroads in the fight against corruption. Team members were very appreciative of the coalition that has been formed among them as a result of the new approach and challenged each other to make personal commitments in their various roles to continue to push the agenda forward. The Chief Secretary informed the Mission of the Government's all-inclusive strategy to deal with corruption led by the Minister of Governance, who will also be attending the 9th IACC in Durban. He mentioned that the Government was aware of the current work by the Team members and was encouraging all stakeholders to provide input into the draft national anti-corruption program. He further mentioned that the Government had strengthened the Prevention of Corruption Bureau (PCB) by establishing branch offices in all regions of the country with an increased budget. The Bureau has now been given powers of search, arrest and prosecution.
The Mission discussed the matrix with Team members and urged them to continue the collaborative approach, encouraging them to continue to reach out to all the stakeholders. The Direc-tor of the PCB informed the Mission that he would be providing funding for the media group to organize a workshop among themselves to discuss the draft action program in order to pro- vide their own input. Members committed themselves to inte-grate the country matrix into the overall national anti-corruption action program that was still in draft form. The Team expressed its understanding that, in addition to promoting a participatory approach towards fighting corruption, the current WBI initiative is also geared towards strengthening the capacity of the country through the provision of inputs and analytical support, as well as other on-going efforts in the country which aim at improving governance and accountability.
In both individual and group meetings, it was emphasized to the Mission that there was some skepticism about the level of political will on the part of Government to fight corruption. The country at the present time does not have a coherent national anti-corruption program and the organizations in charge of leading the fight against corruption in the country so far, have not been successful in gaining top-level political commitment to endorse a national anti-corruption program. The Government provides support to the institutions in charge of corruption, e.g. CHRAJ and the Serious Frauds Office, but it has been unwilling to endorse a national program. Team members informed the Mission that they were trying to reach out to other stakeholders, including religious bodies.
The mission met individually with the Team members as well as with other stakeholders working on developing an anti-corruption strategy. The Anti- Corruption Bureau for example, has been active during the recent weeks in the process of achieving full operational capacity to comply with its mandate. The Bureau took some actions to keep up with some of the definitions contained in the matrix. For example, the Director of the ACB met on August 12 with members of 17 non-governmental organiza- tions to inform them of the role of the Bureau and to try to establish a liaison between its work and the civil society organizations. Three meeting were held with social groups, such as schools and religious groups, to conduct awareness-raising activities regarding corruption. The meetings were held in Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe between June 21 and August 17.
During the mission, the Legal Reform Committee was finali-zing the findings of its evaluation of the legal system in Malawi. The results of this study will be an important input for the ACB program. The Director of the ACB will use the final proceedings of the committee when it convenes with its members in order to share the experience gathered from Washington and explore areas of mutual interest in order to take action.
In subsequent meetings with civil society representatives, two concrete results made: first, the organization of a survey on corruption in Malawi, in connection with assistance provided by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry; and second was the organization of a workshop with NGOs with the aide of the Council for Non-Governmental Organizations, as a means of expanding the base of organizations committed to anti-corruption activities.
Several civil society members believe that the problem in Malawi is more the lack of political will to comply with already existing regulations than insufficient monitoring systems. They contend that at certain levels, mismanagement, lack of trans-parency and even cases on wrong-doing can be present. However, some other members were optimistic, noting that there is a movement in Malawi towards more responsible practices in government. They believe this attitude of change will succeed if government is able to avoid using the issue of corruption as a political argument to fight opponents, especially if the agencies in charge of presenting solutions, such as the ACB and the Ombudsman do a better job in focussing their target.
The Team, together with the mission, presented the latest iteration of the matrix "Prioritising Problem Areas" (in French) to the Finance Minister, and discussed and agreed with him about the next steps to be taken to achieve agreement on anti-corruption strategy, action plan and administrative structure (the Cabinet has already formally considered and endorsed in writing the mandate and the work of the Team).
The Finance Minister asked that a comprehensive, integrated anti-corruption be prepared, that it be validated by civil servants, civil society, the private sector and (informally) by Members of Parliament, and that donors be kept abreast with a view to their eventually supporting elements of its implementation. In order to do this, the Team will proceed, essentially, according to the following next steps:
The Minister agreed to support the Group through the provision of basic office facilities, equipment and materials, meeting facilities, and English language training. He also asked the Team to establish an anti-corruption web-page within the Ministry's web-page on the Internet.
The Béninois Group listed the following relevant anti- corruption measures that have been taken since the first phase of the Core Course in Washington:
SUGGESTED NEXT STEPS
The various stakeholder mandates should complement each other and the other stakeholders should also be considered for institutional support. The "Futa Magendo's" for example, have been working to try to recapture the population that has distanced itself from the Government. In any case, emphasis should be placed on encouraging the concept of stakeholder partnerships where they are all working towards the same goal-minimizing corruption and improving governance in Kenya.
The Government has taken some steps to strengthen the PCB, one indication of the political will to address corruption. However, pressure still needs to be applied on the government to demonstrate the strength of its commitment to fight corruption. Anti-corruption efforts should be coordinated with other on-going efforts, especially those of other donors which aim at improving accountability and transparency in the country.
The Team members need to continue reaching out to other stakeholders, including recruiting allies from the other branches of government as well. If they can build and strengthen the coalition with other stakeholders, the executive branch may have no choice but to join them. However, the Team should approach the executive as a partner in order to win its confidence, rather than as an adversary.
The Team members should continue to bring other stakeholders together as a way of enlarging the representation of the group. For example, the Team can involve "CONGOMA", the NGO that represents the largest and most significant organiza-tions of civil society. Civil society should be encouraged to be active in promoting actions and activities that do not require government support or partnership.
It should be emphasized that since these technical support visits took place over the summer of 1999, and the follow-up Distance Learning AVideo (and Audio) Links from Washington to all seven sites in Africa, considerable further progress has been attained in many of te countries involved in this program (prior to their presentation at the 9th IACC Conference in Durban).
COLLECTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
No anti-corruption program will look the same. Corruption is a symptom of institutional weaknesses, and these institutional failures are partly country-specific. Thus governance programs must be tailored to the individual country's specific institutional and political realities. At the same time, there are certain actions for anti-corruption general enough to be considered more generally in Africa and elsewhere. These recommendations for discussion include: