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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers

Action Programs in Brief
Daniel Kaufmann

Work-in-Progress by the Country Teams of: Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda

Prepared as background for the 9th Annual International Conference Against Corruption, Durban, South Africa 10-15 October 1999

Support to this Action Program Formulation through WBI's Core Course "Controlling Corruption: Towards an Integrated Strategy," June- September 1999

This volume was produced in September 1999 by the Governance, Finance and Regulatory Group at World Bank Institute (WBI), and teams representing seven countries in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda) as part of the Core Course Program, "Controlling Corruption: Towards an integrated strategy", and in preparation for the 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference in Durban, South Africa, October 10th -15th 1999.

For additional information on this and other related programs, visit WBI's Governance and Anti-Corruption Website at:


"From what you have just told me, it sounds like an interesting concept and approach; instead of starting with 'conditionalities' from outside you are working with country participants on the formulation of their own governance program. But what if their program is wrong?"

While the above reaction to the explanation of the approach taken in this pilot governance and anticorruption program is atypical (as illustrated in the contrasting quotes inside this document), it does reflect a measure of skepticism among some in the western financial international community about doing business differently. Fully empowering a coalition within the country to take the lead, while relegating ourselves to a facilitating role does not always come as second nature. Yet even if we now believe in this 'facilitator mindset', modesty and realistic expectations are in order when looking ahead. Indeed, many 'Anti-Corruption Campaigns' as well as externally and conditionality-driven public sector reforms have not been successful over the past two decades. But embarking on a new approach in itself does not ensure success either. Empowerment and participatory coalition-building within the country is a necessary condition for governance-enhancing institutional reforms, yet it is unlikely to suffice.

Technical rigour is also key, for which the two- way transfer of knowledge and shared learning plays an important role - including the use of the latest Distance Learning (e.g. multi-site videoconferencing) technologies. In this context, an in-depth understanding of the country reality, including empirical analysis of the governance challenges, is needed for the country experts and stakeholders to formulate reform measures which are concrete, prioritized and implementable. The systematic sharing of country experiences as well as the collaboration on the new toolkits and approaches with the World Bank and donor community is an important feature of the current program. Similarly, the increasing recognition that corruption is a symptom of more fundamental weaknesses in country institutions plays an important role in focusing on concrete action programs where prevention and incentives are at least as important as enforcement. Within this context, a key challenge is to integrate an anticorruption and governance initiative within the country's program for building capacity and for reforming the institutions of the public sector.

Political will is also paramount, of course. Yet in the countries we are working on we have been persuaded by many dynamic and committed reformists inside and outside of government that one should not take the notion of 'political will' as a --static or insurmountable-- 'given'. The enhanced will to embark on governance changes to improve the lives of the common citizen can be nurtured; within countries often labeled by outsiders as 'lacking political will' the progress made by citizen groups and reformists does illustrate.

The process and program presented in this draft volume reflects collaborative work-in-progress by experts in the countries, partners outside (such as TI) and at the World Bank. They have drawn on their past experiences, on their recently shared country lessons and on the ongoing process in this program. The responsibility for the implementation of the agenda resides with the country's own leadership and its key stakeholders. We have been encouraged by the passion and dedication of the country teams in this program underway already for a number of months, detailed in this document. Yet the lion share of the challenge of institutional change, while underway in some countries, still lies ahead. Those countries committed to such systemic change deserve our support. President Wolfensohn is behind this initiative and has pledged to convene a meeting within the year to assess implementation progress. As many of the country participants have noted, 'it takes two to tangle': they are challenging us to continually facilitate this process of change in their own countries, as well as in ensuring that the disincentives for foreign investors to engage in corrupt practices abroad are raised significantly and donor- financed projects provide an example in transparency and probity.

Daniel Kaufmann,
World Bank Institute


The equal emphasis and integration of process and substance ought to be regarded as paramount in formulating a realistic anti-corruption action program. This substantive process can be categorized into three main components successful anti-corruption programs need to integrate: (a) rigorous information/data and knowledge; (b) political leadership; and (c) collective action. Currently, a new effort in formulation of anti-corruption programs is taking place for seven countries in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda).

The new approach has the following key features:

  1. participatory-from consensus-building to collective action-involving all stakeholders (the state, legislature, civil society, private sector, etc.);
  2. drven by the country teams themselves, not by donors;
  3. empowering citizens and creating public pressure for change;
  4. utilization of rigorous toolkits to diagnose and analyze the governance challenge in each country;
  5. rigorous translation of the analysis into realistic program design (identification and strategic prioritization);
  6. corruption seen as a symptom of weakness of the state rather than the fundamental source of the problem implying emphasis on key components of institutional reforms (rule of law, financial management and procurement; taxation and customs; civil service reform, etc.);
  7. integration among the above components, internalization with the country leadership, and initiation of concrete anticorruption reforms.

Broad-based Participation, Country Leadership, and Empirical Rigour


John Githongo, Kenya Team:
"As a result of the World Bank's programme, the Kenya team have participated in the formulation of the strategic plan of the Kenya Anti-Corruption Authority (KACA). Speaking as a non- government person I would say this involvement of civil society actors in the formulation of plans of a major government body is unprecedented in Kenya where relations between the state and civil society are often strained".

Bakili Muluzi, President of Malawi:
"The Government of the Republic of Malawi is proud to associate itself with the global approach to fighting corruption. I fully endorse this approach, which is all inclusive, and aims to involve stakeholders in Malawi. This is an innovative approach and is in my view a recipe for eventual success.... Therefore, Mr. President, my letter serves to affirm to you my full endorsement and support for the individual and collective work which our Malawi Country Team, coordinated by the Director of the Anti-Corruption Bureau, has already done in developing policy matrices and action plans as part of the World Bank's pilot programme for controlling corruption". From letter of president Muluzi to President Wolfensohn, Sept. 29, 1999.

Edward Hoseah, Director of Investigation, Prevention of Corruption Bureau, Tanzania:
"The course has been a tremendous help to our country team because it has brought us together - - the government on the one hand, the civil society, and the private sector on the other. Secondly, it has cemented our relationship with other stakeholders, in particular, the private sector in the formulation and the implementation of the country's anti-corruption program".

Luis Moreno Ocampo, Head of Transparency International, Latin America:
"Hypercorruption or systemic corruption is a public policy issue. The work of Transparency International with civil society and the new diagnostic survey tools developed by the World Bank Institute are now paving the way for a new level of understanding on the causes and economic consequences of corruption. The power of data and these diagnostics are vital in the formation of the new alliances which have to go beyond the awarness-raising stage into concrete actions and programs. This "Core Course" offer33s countries the opportunity to develop such concrete programs."

James D. Wolfensohn, World Bank President:
"The purpose of this course is how it is you can develop programs which we can support. Enthusiasm for the process differs, but it is a process. You are teaching staff from the Bank here too. It is a strong interactive process". From his interactive session with the participants, June 16, 1999.

"[This first phase of the participatory program in Washington] was really a fabulous week in which the issue of corruption was addressed in these seven countries, a fascinating exercise which is even more interesting because additional modules are now being given by satellite to these same people twice a week over the coming weeks. The initiative taken here in Washington is now being extended in the countries themselves, and then, finally, we'll all come back together again for the presentations which will be made at a conference in Durban later this year. From the July 1999 'Journal of the President' with highlights from the previous month.

Emile Francis Short, Commissioner, Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice, Ghana:
"This World Bank initiative has been very important because it has demonstrated the usefulness of a participatory approach in developing an anti-corruption strategy. In developing countries where corruption is a systemic problem, establishing broad-based coalitions by bringing together government, state institutions and civil society is undoubtedly an effective approach in fighting corruption. However, if this World Bank initiative is to be sustained, the Bank would have to provide assistance to some of the institutions that will be spearheading the implementation of the programme. We would also hope that the Bank would use its influence to secure more commitment from the various governments to combat corruption".

Theodore Ahlers, World Bank Country Director for Benin:
"The great feature about this major "course" is that it is a non-course, it is an integrated and participatory program where the country takes the lead. In that context, we are working with them toward identifying actions, in a strategic manner, that are important and do-able in the short run that can be taken to have an early success".

Participant from Tanzania:
"What was most important for us was the participants from different backgrounds - CPOs, governments and others working together as a team. Without the spirit of working together we cannot manage to do it.

Robert McNamara, Former President of the World Bank, and full participant in the Program:
"I have come to learn, to contribute, and to lend my support to what I perceive as the major constraint to Africa's development, namely corruption..... I think this is a different way of doing business, pointing to the beginnings of a breakthrough in bringing learning tools and coalition-building together on a dire socio-economic issue". Farewell comments to his fellow participants of the first phase of the Anti-Corruption Core Course in Washington, June 1999.

Participant from Uganda:
"Sometimes we imagine that corruption will end up with everything...... We learned that tools and people are here to help us. We are committed to learning and doing all we can to be successful".

Joseph Stiglitz, Chief Economist of the World Bank:
"The Bank is now convinced of the negative effects of corruption on economic development. WBI is working with a broad range of African civil society. The participants should consider how the Bank could engage more successfully with civil society, particularly where government is not interested in initiatives."

Participant from Kenya:
"We learned a lot from the other African countries and from the consultants who have assisted us in devising an anti-corruption program. We look forward to continued partnership. We have begun a long journey in which we are confident of success in the not-so-distant future".

Jan Jorgensen, Faculty of Management and Strategy Advisor, McGill University, Montreal
"The pedagogical methods for fostering policy dialog that WBI are developing and using are truly innovative for widening voice on one of the most sensitive and important development issues. Furthermore, the course brings knowledge and research to learning as well as learning with knowledge".

Participant from Ethiopia:
"The problem of corruption is so gigantic. We all need to know how to attack it. I learned during the course how to do that...... with professionalism and passion".

Participant from Benin:
"Sharing experiences was very useful to us. First, we started working among ourselves and now we have expanded and went to other people. The one thing we learned is that we need to be together in this. Thanks to the World Bank, the staff of the course and all the participants".

Participant from Malawi:
"Thank you World Bank and fellow participants. When we received the communication about the course we had a dilemma. On the same day the course started, our country was going to the polls for a very important election, but we knew the importance of the course and we voted before we came.... this course has been very good for us, for all the participants".

Maximilien Sossou-Gloh of Benin Team:
"Benin was the only French speaking country participating in this part of the world Bank's Programme and I learned a lot from the other teams coming from English speaking countries. More particulary, I noticed similarities in the problems we encounter as African countries trying to control corruption. Working together with the others members of my country team highlighted the necessity of a "holistic approach" to tackle the issue of corruption. It demonstrated that we need a consensus in Benin between the Government and Civil Society. Holding meetings with the other stakeholders-- members of the Ministries as well as other Government bodies and the civil society demonstrated the interest they had in the matter and the value-added by this approach."

Mr. Lucien Aristide Deguenon of Benin Team:
"I'm involved in the World Bank Institute Anti-Corruption Programme, as member of Benin team. This programme permits me to appreciate the fullness of Corruption Phenomenum in the World, and particularly in my country. The most important benefit is that my team has started, with the support of the Government, to build up, thanks to the help of the World Bank Institute and of the other teams, highlighting the value of a participatory approach that included civil society participation. I look forward to learning more about corruption in Durban".

Professor Medard Rwelamira, Head, Policy Unit, Department of Justice, South Africa
"It was one of the most fruitful workshops on Corruption that I have attended. It provided me with good methodological tools to analyze what is certainly one of the most complex socioeconomic problems of our times. What was particularly enriching was the environment which enabled participants to exchange experiences on issues of common concern"

Vinod Thomas, Director, WBI
"It was a pathbreaking event, setting the standard for combining the sharing of rigorous tools and techniques with participant involvement in working out a shared commitment for concrete institutional change in their own countries. From his "Weekly", June 20, 1999.


The [Empty] Worksheet at the outset of the program

Country Action Matrix
ProblemActions to takeBy whom?Resource needed Expected results and by when?



The common perception is that while countries have initiated programs to fight corruption, the result to date is at best mixed. While lack of resources, personal, and top political support are to blame, the process, design, and implementation strategy of anti-corruption programs should also be questioned. In particular, many programs have been tightly controlled within an agency of the government, with little or no involvement from civil society, the media, private sector and parliaments. All too often, little effort at initiating a consensus-building approach towards a cooperative action has taken place. Where civil society has figured in the program, their involvement has after been parallel to the government, not joint, and focused on awareness raising. Thus many programs have lacked broad- based support, and focused heavily on government-run (and often weak)enforcement mechanisms to combat corruption, instead of a broad- based preventative, incentive and systemically-based strategy.

The participatory program "Controlling Corruption: Towards an integrated approach" attempts to counter this trend by suggesting a different approach to combating corruption and improving governance more broadly. The program (strictly speaking a 'course') started in June 1999 with a diverse group of stakeholders from seven countries in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda) representing the government, independent commissions, civil society, and media, which gathered face-to-face for an intensive and interactive week of shared learning in Washington, D.C. The World Bank Institute organized, facilitated and provided toolkits and information, while the teams took the actual lead in beginning to formulate participatory anti-corruption programs for their countries.

Most of the participating countries already have ongoing programs in place, which is mirrored in the participants' accumulated knowledge of what works and what does not in anti-corruption. Starting afresh-in fact with the empty matrix shown on the previous page-yet at the same time building on their past experience, the teams have initiated an ambitious undertaking to institute sustainable changes in an area that has, to date, been difficult to realize tangible results. Similarly, they have benefited from building on each other's experiences.

Since the workshop in Washington D.C., the process of designing an integrated and participatory action program to fight corruption has continued, fueled by a continuos series of distance learning videoconferences where subject-experts have shared their experience of best-practice in institutional reform (rule of law, financial manage- ment and procurement; taxation and customs; civil service reform). This document illustrates what has been achieved in the participating countries (and country teams) as of end of September 1999; the course outline; joint recommendations, and the country teams' own views on the process.



The costs of corruption and misgovernance are enormous. However, practitioners, public sector managers, senior advisers, legislators, and civil society leaders are rarely exposed to an in-depth understanding of the multiple dimensions and determinants of corruption nor to practical alternatives to improving governance. This course aims at closing the gap by:

  • providing the participants with concrete tools to prepare and implement action programs to fight corruption and improve governance and
  • creating an environment in which participants from different segments of society can work together to review results of successful (and unsuccessful) practices and reforms.

Traditional anti-corruption courses are based on two different approaches to the problem of corruption. One type emphasizes the analytical understanding of the problem; that is, corruption is ultimately a symptom of weak institutions and poor policies. Thus, addressing corruption effectively means addressing under-lying economic, political and institutional causes. The second type of course is more proactive, dealing with the process of awareness raising, mobilization and civil society involvement in the fight against corruption.

This course combines the two approaches into an integrated framework. A key component of the course is to provide the participants with the necessary toolkit to enable them to design a coherent anti-corruption strategy that is tailored to their country's specific institutional and political realities. Through a series of interactive sessions, participants work together as country teams through the process of designing an anti-corruption strategy and discuss the challenges of integrating the participatory process with concrete institutional reforms.

The course is being piloted in Africa, starting in June 1999. It will then be replicated in other regions (South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe) beginning with Latin America in April 2000.


The primary goal of the course is to provide the tools to develop a participatory and integrated action program of institutional re-forms to combat corruption. It will expose the participants to best practices and provide hands-on experience through learning-by-doing exercises. As an integral part of the course, participants' own experiences with anti-corruption work and design will be reviewed. A variety of instructional activities including lectures, 'instant surveys,' working groups, panels, and field visits, will provide the participants with the methods to initiate, prepare and implement a participatory strategy of institutional reforms.


This pilot course is intended for senior policy makers, public officials, legislators, private sector and key representatives from civil society with responsibilities for design, preparation and im-plementation of an anti-corruption strategy. In the first offering in June-October 1999, seven African countries are invited to participate. The course will be replicated in other regions. Each course will include representatives from 5-7 countries who will work intensively as teams.


The program is divided into four inter-linked phases over a period of four months. The last phase-implementation-is not covered within the 'course' itself, but is included in the overall architecture since it maps out the logical next steps in the action program. Moreover, follow-up support for such implementation is provided. A diagrammatic synthesis of the overall architecture of the course is provided in the figure below.

To illustrate the overall architecture of this integrated program, the first course offering includes the following:

  • Phase 1: Washington, D.C., 14-18 June
  • Phase 2: Distance Learning, 28 June-24 September
  • Phase 3: Action Program Preparation for and presentation at the International Conference Against Corruption in Durban, South Africa, 24 September-15 October
  • Phase 4: Implementation, November 1999 onwards, includ-ing an implementation review meeting in mid-2000

In the first phase the participants were provided with the conceptual outline of an anti-corruption strategy, as well as the fundamental steps in design and implementation of an action plan. As an integral part of the first phase, the participants' own experiences were discussed, and the pros and cons of existing anti-corruption programs were analyzed. A preliminary matrix of anti-corruption plans will be developed by each country team.

The second phase is being delivered through distance learning techniques to the seven predetermined countries. Building on the initial action plan developed in Phase 1, the participants are refining the blueprint to encompass prioritized areas of institutional reforms (financial management and procurement, rule of law, customs reform and civil service reform). During this second phase, each country team is being supported by experts travelling to the participating countries to facilitate the action program design. Additional feedback and technical support is being provided through videoconferences. The span between the first and third phase is also giving the participants time to discuss the action plan with a broad spectrum of relevant stakeholders in their country and also to ensure broader ownership of the proposed strategy.

The workshop constituting the third phase will be part of the 9th International Conference Against Corruption (IACC). In the workshop, the participants will present their action program developed throughout the course. During the conference the teams will have the opportunity for peer review, interaction regarding shared experience, and the opportunity to discuss possible strategies regarding the next steps required for implementation, in collaboration with a broader constituency of domestic stakeholders and external partners.


Face-to-face event in Washington, D.C., 14-18 June 1999

Day 1: Impact and How Corruption Affects Your Country

Session 1. Introduction, Welcome and Keynote speech

A senior World Bank official welcomed the participants. Review of course activities, agenda, and materials.

Session 2. Overview of an Action Program and Participant Expectations

This session briefly described the course outline. The course is being based on a holistic strategy to combat corruption, combining various components into an integrated approach. Key components include: managing an action program, diagnostics, prioritization, dissemination, political will, institution-specific diagnosis, reform measures, implementation plans and monitoring systems. This session also reviewed the participants' expectations of the course and possible follow-up support.

Session 3. Designing Anti-Corruption Programs: The Participants' Experience

A selected group of participants shared their experience in designing anti-corruption programs. What has worked, what has not, and why? What are the common features? What are the pros and cons of existing programs? Have they been implemented? The session stressed the potential gains of integrating existing components in anti-corruption efforts into a holistic strategy to fight corruption, as well as the importance of utilizing an incentive-driven approach focusing on prevention and not only tackling the symptoms.

Session 4. Why Combat Corruption?

Evidence suggests that economic, social and political costs of corruption are very large. The module reviewed existing cross-country data on corruption and its correlates, emphasizing the fact that corruption ultimately is a symptom of weak institutions and poor policies. Thus, addressing corruption effectively means ad-dressing underlying economic, political and institutional causes. Finally, the session provided an overview of the participating countries' institutional arrangements and perceptions of corruption.

Session 5. Initiating a program to fight corruption

Using a case study country teams discussed the underlying causes of corruption, the critical consequences of not curbing corrupt practices, and the political feasibility of anti-corruption efforts.

Day 2: Tools and Processes for Diagnostics and Design

Session 6. Diagnostics: Overview of survey approach

This session discussed how empirical surveys can provide information needed to develop an anti-corruption program. Specifically, the session will examine how empirical tools can be used to: · identify shortcomings in a country's policies and institutions

  • establish priorities for reform
  • educate the public about the costs of corruption
  • establish a baseline against which the reform impact can be measured

Session 7. Diagnostics: Expert assessment

This session presented another method to identify concerns related to a country's policies and institutions. It reviewed how the method can be used to elicit operational data for program design. Recent assessments of countries' political and institutional structures were described and discussed. The session also discussed ways to integrate expert assessments with diagnostic surveys.

Session 8. From diagnostics to design

In small discussion groups, participants were given simulated survey results and the task of analyzing the data and interpreting it in terms of general trends and themes. Participants then prepared a matrix which identified priority areas for inclusion in an anti- corruption action plan. The matrix incorporated statements about the costs of corruption implied by the data, and identified the specific areas that will initially be targeted in the action plan along with a rationale for selecting the particular areas for reform.

Day 3: Coalition Building

Session 9. Involvement processes: civil society, private sector, parliament and the media

There is clear evidence that participation in development projects plays an important role in reducing corruption. Thus, involve-ment of key stakeholders does not have a value only in itself; it can also increase efficiency in design and implementation. This session reviewed participatory tools such as national workshops and information campaigns, and discussed how data on corruption can be utilized for awareness raising, coalition building and mobilization of constituencies for reform.

Session 10. Anti-corruption institutions and agencies: role, impact, and who should run them

There are several types of anti-corruption institutions around the world. This session reviewed the experience of a number of them, including anti-corruption commissions; oversight committees; watchdog agencies; auditor generals and ombudsmen; and discussed the circumstances in which they work, those in which they do not work, and the reasons why they do not. The session also addressed how the work of existing anti-corruption bodies could be incorporated into an overall strategy to fight corruption.

Session 11. Political will

This session reviewed tools to mobilize and sustain political will. It will discussed methods of coalition building to foster politicians' willingness to reform, and policy options available when political commitment is lacking. Tools to assess key stakeholders' incentives for reform in general, and anti-corruption efforts in particular, were provided.

Session 12. Revision of the action plan

In small discussion groups, participants were given an opportunity to revise their matrices to fit their country's institutional and political realities. Involvement processes and dissemination plans were integrated into the country-specific matrices, and discussed in a plenary session.

Day 4: Agency-Specific Surveys and Monitoring Strategies

Session 13. Agency-specific surveys and other tools

This session focused on agency-specific diagnostic tools for collecting data on corruption, including public expenditure reviews and tracking studies, and price comparisons (users' costs of public services). The session also identified existing data in order to establish benchmarks to guide reform.

Session 14. Monitoring techniques

Monitoring government bodies in general, and the reform program in particular, are key components in a successful anti- corruption strategy. This session discussed specific monitoring tools that can provide continuous inputs for governance improvement and reform.

Session 15. Final integration and summary

During this session, participants completed the matrix. This matrix included a conceptual framework in which the priorities and sequencing of the components were identified. The processes and tools discussed in the course were mapped into a strategy to combat corruption in the participants' countries. In a plenary session, group matrices were presented and discussed.

Day 5: Field visit and Closing of the First Phase

Session 16. Enforcement Agencies

The benefits of certain law enforcement and prevention approaches currently being used by different agencies were discussed. Furthermore, the techniques and the methodologies employed by enforcement agencies (such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Serious Fraud Office (U.K.), and Contrôle de Corruption (France)) to address the problem of corruption were reviewed. The FBI provided a tour for the participants at FBI headquarters.


The second phase was delivered during a four-week span, with two distance learning events each week. Four key subject areas were covered: Rule of Law, Financial Management and Procure-ment, Civil Service Reform and Customs Reform. The modules focused on crucial aspects of anti-corruption. Each module fol-lowed a given structure: First, a case study was presented; small group discussions followed. The participants were then expected to incorporate new insights about causes, tools, policy actions, policy impact and expected results into the matrix they initiated in Phase 1. Each country team was supported by experts who traveled to the participating countries to facilitate the action program design. Finally the matrices were presented and discussed.

Module 1. Rule of Law

Session 1: Case study presentation

Reform and modernization of the rule of law is a cornerstone of a successful anti-corruption strategy. One of the key requirements of an effective rule of law is that it reflects actual social behavior and serves as an effective mean of societal control to avoid corruption. This session provided the analytical framework and relevant measures for reforming and improving the rule of law. Based on a case study, this module promoted the understanding and identification of common institutional patterns found in different countries suffering from systemic corruption. The session identified policy measures related to the rule of law to be adopted in the fight against corruption. The session also developed the participants' capacity to build strategic and tactical anti- corruption policies for the improvement of rule of law in a country. Selected topics included:

  • relevant measures for reforming and improving the rule of law
  • formal legal framework and effective conduct/behavior in Africa
  • alternative mechanisms of resolution
  • independent legal and judicial bodies
  • systems to receive and process complaints from the public
  • adequate comprehensive legal and regulatory frameworks to combat corruption

Session 2: Presentations of the matrices

Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to reform and improve the rule of law and reduce corruption. Each group also provided feedback on the module and matrices.

Module 2. Financial Management and Procurement

Session 1. Financial Management

One of the most powerful anti-corruption devices is the simple establishment of sound financial management practices, including a timely and efficient accounting system combined with punctual, professional reviews by internal and external independent auditors. The major issue is how to integrate basic financial management functions and responsibilities into a coordinated single system. This session described how such an integrated system provides a powerful tool to fight corruption. Specific points included:

  • budgetary control
  • avoidance of cash flow " surprises"
  • spotting weaknesses
  • accounting control over resources
  • transparency in public reporting
  • consistent enforcement of criteria

Session 2. Procurement

Procurement is an area prone to corruption. This session identified best innovative tools and experiences to strengthen the procurement system. Specific topics included:

  • measures of how to improve transparency, equality, accountability and fair evaluation of proposals in public bidding
  • ways to enhance professional and impartial decision-making processes by government officials
  • adequate and opportune advertisement of business opportunities and publication of the results of bidding and contracting
  • measures to ensure confidentiality and minimize the interference of bidders and outside parties during the evaluation process
  • awarding of public contracts and impartial judging of proposals during the tender process

Session 3: Presentations of the matrices

Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to strengthen the financial management and procurement systems and reduce corruption. Each group was also provided with feedback on the module and matrices.

Module 3. Customs Reform

Session 1. Customs Reform

Empirical evidence suggests that complex and non-transparent trade regulations are related to corruption. Monopoly power and discretion of customs officials, combined with selective information sharing with the private sector, tend to create incentives for corruption. This session reviewed recent attempts to reform customs. Some of the topics addressed included:

  • computerization of the customs system and the shift to pre-shipment inspection
  • tariff reform
  • increased transparency in the trade system
  • wage policies and monitoring systems
  • internal and external monitoring procedures
  • empirical mechanisms to identify corruption within customs systems

Session 2: Presentations of the action plans

Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to reform customs and reduce corruption. Each group also provided feedback on the module and matrices.

Module 4. Civil Service Reform

Session 1. Case Study on Civil Service Reform

In many countries the civil service is characterized by rigid structures, clientelism, poor pay and conditions, and non-merit based systems of appointment and promotion. Apart from inefficiency and poor service quality, these characteristics have favored another major source of civil service dysfunction-corruption. But reforms in public sector management, being introduced in a number of countries, have the potential to reduce corruption and may be of central importance in anti-corruption strategies. The reforms to be examined included:

  • changes in organizational structures, such as decentralization to sub- national governments, privatization and the creation of autonomous agencies
  • personnel management reforms, focussing on transparent and merit based appointments and promotions, including regular performance appraisal
  • improvements in civil service pay and conditions, including a greater linkage with performance
  • the establishment of ethical codes of conduct for civil servants
  • instilling a "customer" focus in government, possibly through such mechanisms as citizens' charters or service quality charters and administrative simplification

Session 2: Presentations of the matrices

Individual groups applied the knowledge gained during the course by developing matrices for an action program to reform public sector management and reduce corruption. Each group also provided feedback on the module and matrices.

Optional Post-Session Modules on Anti-Corruption

To further tailor the course to country-specific demands, the participants (or country groups) were given the opportunity to choose two modules from a pre-determined list of anti-corruption-related subjects to be delivered through a series of video-conferences. The modules included:

  • anti-corruption programs at the municipal level
  • media training
  • parliamentary training
  • record management
  • tax reform


The third phase will involve the preparation and presentation of the action program for the International Conference Against Corruption. During the conference, the teams will have the opportunity to present and discuss their action programs, share experiences, and discuss next steps for implementation with key stakeholders and external partners.


This course will be replicated in other regions (South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe), beginning with Latin America in April 2000.


The course is being organized by the World Bank. The faculty includes academics and practitioners involved in different facets of anti-corruption. The complete list of Resource Team Members can be found below.

In addition, interactive participation is taking place with the President of the World Bank, James D. Wolfensohn, the Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, Joseph E. Stiglitz, the former President of the World Bank, Robert S. McNamara, and the Director of the World Bank Institute, Vinod Thomas.

Program Task Managers: Maria Gonzalez de Asis and Jakob Svensson

Distance Learning Manager: Donald MacDonald

Senior Manager: Daniel Kaufmann




Ms. Anne Cica Adjai
Adviser of the President of the Republic
Moralization in Charge of the Struggle

Mr. Fulbert Amoussouga Gero
Professor of Economics

Mr. Lucien Aristide Deguenon
Director of Direction Legislation et Codification, Ministry of Justice

Ms. Felicienne Guinikoukou Padonou
Inspector General of Finances

Mr. Maximilien Gregorie Sossou-Gloh
President of FONAC


H.E. Weredewold Menshu Woldie
Minister, Ministry of Justice

Mr. Yehwalashet Kassa Abagelan
Media Project Manager
Ethics Sub-Program

Ms. Enwoy Gebremedihn Abera
Head of Inspection Unit
Office of the Prime Minister

Mr. Teshome Gabre-Mariam Bokan
Law Consultant

Mr. Kifle Telga Kebede
Ethics Education Project Manager
Civil Service Reform Coordinating Office

Mr. Hailu Berhe Tsaedu
Inspector, Inspection Unit


Mr. Alhaji Muhammad Abdullah
Chief Controller
Special Services, Serious Fraud Office

Dr. George Apenteng
Executive Director, Institute of Economic Affairs

Mr. Emile Short
Commissioner, Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice


Mr. John Githongo
African Strategic Research Institute

Ms. Betty Chemutai Maina
Chief Executive, Institute of Economic Affairs

Mr. James Elvis Omariba Ongwae
Programme Director, Civil Service Reform Secretariat

Mr. Job Osiako ,
Principal, Ministry of Information, T&C

Mr. Edward Akongo Oyugi
Coordinator, Social Development Network

Hon. Justice Aaron G. Ringera
Director, Kenya Anti-Corruption Authority


Ms. Patricia Jim Chirwa
Board Member, Programme Implementation,
Transparency International Malawi

Mr. Gilton Chiwaula,
Director, Anti-Corruption Bureau

Mr. John Kapito Executive Director; Consumers Association of Malawi

Mr. Kamudoni Nyasulu
Director of Public Prosecutions, Justice Department


Mr. Sudhir J. Chavda
Secretary, Front Against Corrupt Elements in Tanzania

Mr. Edward Hoseah
Director of Investigation
Prevention of Corruption Bureau

Ms. Betty Massanja

Ms. Mariam Joy Mwaffisi
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Health


Ms. Mary Buhamizo
Information Officer, Directorate of Ethics and Integrity

Mr. Richard Buteera
Director, Directorate of Public Prosecutions

Mr. Erich Opolot Ogoso
Bureau Chief Nation Media Group

Mr. Jotham Tumwesigye
Inspector General of Government

Mr. Mathias Bazongoza Tumwesigye
Director of Education and Prevention of Corruption, IGG

Professor Medard Rwelamira
Head of the Policy Unit
Department of Justice


Daniel Kaufmann, Maria Gonzalez de Asis, Sahr Kpundeh Frederick Stapenhurst, and Ephraim Ugwuonye (WBI) and Jakob Svensson (DECRG)

Resources and Partners:

Jean-Pierre Bueb
Councelor, Service Central de Prevention de la Corruption, France

Roberto de Michele

Rafael Di Tella
Asst. Professor, Harvard Business School

Jit Bahadur Gill
Senior Public Sector Management Specialist, LCSPR

John Githongo
Director, African Strategic Research Institute, Kenya

Cheryl Gray
Director, PRMPS

Medard Rwelamira
Senior Legal Advisor, Ministry of Justice, South Africa

Stephen Myers
Case Controller, Serious Fraud Office, United Kingdom

Petter Langseth
Sr. Public Sector Management Specialist, WBI

Robert McNamara
Global Coalition for Africa

Luis Moreno Ocampo
Head, Transparency International, Latin America

Stephen O'Brien
Independent Economic Consultant

Samuel Paul
Chairman, Public Affairs Centre, India

Ritva Reinikka
Senior Economist, AFTM2

Alfonso Sanchez
Director, OCSPR

Michael Stevens
Principal Public Sector Management Specialist, PRMPS

Joseph Stiglitz
Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, DECVP

Vinod Thomas
Director, WBI

Jack Titsworth
Consultant, AFTI1

James Wesberry
Casals & Associates

James Wolfensohn
President, World Bank

Pablo Zoido-Lobaton
Economist, WBI

Nancy Zucker-Boswell
Managing Director, Transparency International-USA

Phase 1 Action Planning Facilitators

Jamila Abdelghani

Bill Bean
Pilot Corporation

Isabelle Bléas
Private Sector Development Specialist, WBIGF

Julie Brykczynski
HRS Executive Education, PA9EE

Vicky Keith
Pilot Corporation

Nina Nordgren
Sr. Management Planning Specialist, HRSLD

Tari Riddle
Pilot Corporation

Connie Steward
Pilot Corporation

Katy Tyler
Sr. Personnel Planning Specialist, HRSLD

Michaela Weber
Jr. Professional Officer, LCSFR

Brian Wilkinson
Principal Learning Specialist, HRSLD

Phase 2 Distance Learning Organizers and Site Coordinators

Debra Beattie-Kelly
Consultant, WBIDL

Barbara Bitondo
Production Assistant, WBIDL

Donald MacDonald
Distance Learning Manager, WBIKP

Christopher Valdez
Audio-Visual Technician, WBIDL

Aberash Merid Begashaw
Resident Mission, Ethiopia

Anges Biribonwa
Resident Mission, Uganda

David Kaliwo
Resident Mission,Malawi

Elysee Kiti
Resident Mission, Benin

Huba Mannoro
Resident Mission, Tanzania

Margaret Boateng Sekyere
Resident Mission, Ghana

Gituro Wainaina
Resident Mission, Kenya

Administrative Support

Alisa Abrams
Lisa Ball
Diane Bouvet
Sean Courtney
Elizabeth Crespo
Marie-Laure Curie
Laura Dillon
Sevil Etili
Annie Klebers
Maria Rosa Lind
James Quigley
Alexandra Russo Roncal
Jill Shafer
Fiona Simpkins

The Support and Facilitation of the Country Directors, Resident Representatives, and their field offices staff is appreciated




Technical support missions were undertaken by Sahr Kpundeh, Roberto de Michelle and Jack Titsworth in support of Phase 2 (which im-mediately precedes the 9th Annual Anti-Corruption Conference in Durban, South Africa) of the multi-country Core Course pro-cess that began in Washington in June, 1999. The Africa Region of the World Bank and WBI have been supporting the seven participating African countries (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) by providing technical assistance in the following areas:

  • assist with strengthening linkages between anti-corruption bodies and other stakeholders; · assist with the in- depth formulation of specific components of their institutional reforms in the anti-corruption action plans being developed by their own countries;
  • assist with knowledge of assessing and building political will among the various stakeholders; and
  • distill and disseminate the most recent lessons of operational research and of good pilot activities and practices.


The purpose of the missions in August 1999 was the following:

  • work with the various country teams in refining their country matrices- essentially focusing on implementable actions;
  • providing input in their discussions on prioritizing their strat-egy including eliminating areas that are not politically or financially feasible;
  • providing input in identifying strategies to build support for reform and more importantly in rallying key stakeholders in support of these reforms (executive, legislature, judiciary, Anti-Corruption Institutions, civil society, business community, media, international community, etc.);
  • identifying implementable responsibilities-what the various stakeholders can do-the team, government, civil society, etc., and the sequence of the strategies to be implemented.
Furthermore, the missions were to assist the teams in linking their program with the existing National Anti-Corruption plans, as well as integrating the different components (matrices) into a coherent strategy.


The Ethiopia Country Team is currently working on a Code of Conduct for public officials. Following the first phase of the workshop in Washington, they organized a workshop in Addis to assess the current state of their efforts in fighting corruption. While the Mission was in Addis Ababa, the Team held a follow-up workshop where other stakeholders were invited to provide input into the country program. The Team has hired a consultant to help them collect and integrate the views of the stakeholders into the national anti-corruption program.

The technical details on the survey were finalized, and the Institute of Research at the Addis Ababa University has been selected as the local group to conduct the survey. The sample size was designated as the following: 2,400 households, 600 business enterprises, and 1,000 public officials. This survey will cover all nine states and in addition to English, the questionnaire will be translated into the following local dialects: Amharic, Tigrinia, Oromina, Hariri, Somali, and Afar.

In Kenya, despite being cut off from video-conferencing because of technical problems, the Country Team had continued to meet on their own using course materials sent from WBI. The Kenyan Team had delayed some of its planned actions because it wanted to integrate the matrix developed in Washington within the overall plan of the Kenya Anti- Corruption Commission (KACA).

KACA felt its strategic plan to fight corruption in Kenya needed more professional input and hired a consulting company to develop the plan further. The Core Team will be given the opportunity to provide significant input before presenting it at the Durban Conference. Team members also endorsed the idea that after the consultants finished compiling the documents, it will be sent to all stakeholders including the private sector for their input. The results of this will be a draft Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Kenya which will be the basis of a National Workshop in December, 1999.

Individual members of the Core Team are proceeding with their work in terms of involving other stakeholders. For example, the Social Development Network, (which is a coalition of eight NGOs), conducted a corruption survey and collected data on the judiciary, education and health sectors. They are planning to publish the data hoping it will throw light on the problem of corruption in these sectors and means of addressing it. The Futa Magendo's (Action Network) are organizing grassroots campaigns and workshops addressing service delivery issues in all sectors.

Throughout the Mission's meetings with the Kenyan Team, it was consistently reiterated that the initiative by WBI to bring the parties together in Washington highlighted their realization that collaborative efforts are necessary in order to be successful. They are currently working together in defining a comprehensive action program for Kenya-all stakeholders are providing their input to a national anti-corruption strategy, which was previously unheard of.

The process in Kenya is now self-driven and the "team" commitment is quite high, especially since it is a good mix of government and civil society representatives, as well as those from the private sector. The commitment of the Head of KACA to attend the Core Course on anti- corruption in Washington was a good sign for the agency's anti- corruption efforts. After returning from the first phase of the course, the Head of KACA briefed the President, Daniel Arap Moi, who, the Mission was informed, was happy that the possibility of engaging other actors when necessary now exists.

The Mission also met with other stakeholders-members of the media as well as the Chair of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Anti-Corruption in Kenya. Media representatives informed the Mission that they were conducting training pro-grams in investigative reporting to help build a cadre of credible journalists and reporters. The Chairman of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Anti-Corruption in Kenya informed the Mission of his collaborative work with the Head of KACA in promoting the anti- corruption agenda in Kenya. He will be traveling to Durban to participate in the 9th IACC as well as the follow-up workshop being organized by WBI on "Challenges to building coalitions in the fight against corruption in Africa."

The Mission held several meetings with the Ugandan Team members, both individually and collectively, to discuss their country matrix. Meetings were also held with other stakeholders, including the Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee, Mr. Augustine Ruzindana, and a representative from the local chapter of Transparency International.

After the first phase of the course, the Team members focused their attention on revising their country matrices and integrating them into the national anti- corruption program. However, it was evident throughout the meetings that the anti-corruption program in the country is still very much government-driven. For example, the anti-corruption agencies meet once every month to discuss the action plan but do not include representatives from civil society in their discussions. The Mission encouraged the government agencies to be more inclusive in their approach and pointed out that lasting anti-corruption reforms are more about building coalitions. The Inspector General of Government informed the Mission of the various steps he is taking to be more inclusive, including organizing a conference in September which will bring together both government and civil society.

Most of the discussions with the Ugandan Team revolved around making its anti- corruption program more inclusive of non-traditional stakeholder groups. The Government already had an anti-corruption action plan in place before the Country Team arrived in Washington for the first phase. This plan was designed by Government with no input from civil society.

The Team members from the government are now trying to adjust to the realities of the new participative approach which emphasizes the involvement of all stakeholders and promotes the idea of coalition-building among stakeholders in effecting an anti-corruption strategy.

Team members agreed to use the matrix they have been working on collectively to revise and fine-tune their current national anti- corruption program. The final meeting with the Team members was held in the office of the Minister of Ethics and Integrity. She informed the Mission of the Government's com-mitment to dealing with corruption and encouraged the Team to work on refining its matrix so that Uganda could show that their action program was the collective work of all the stakeholders during the conference in Durban.


The mission met with the Country Team members who had also arranged separate meetings with various stakeholders. The idea behind these meetings was to get the input from the stakeholders to help revise the country matrix as well as to provide the Mission with the opportunity of explaining the new WBI ap-proach. They also wanted to know about the progress of the other countries the Mission had already visited. In short, the Country Team thought it would be easier to get broad stakeholder support for the new approach and establish a serious commitment to collaborate if the Mission was given audience with the various stakeholders. Therefore, meetings were scheduled with the Chief Secretary in the Office of the President, legal practitioners, the Association of Journalists and Media Workers, civil society, procurement experts, the Tangayika Law Society, the Head of the Civil Service Reform Commission, the Commissioner General of the Tanzania Revenue Authority, and the Executive Director of the National Income Generation Programme, as well as senior staff members at the Resident Mission.

It was evident from the meetings that there is serious commitment on the part of both Government and civil society to make inroads in the fight against corruption. Team members were very appreciative of the coalition that has been formed among them as a result of the new approach and challenged each other to make personal commitments in their various roles to continue to push the agenda forward. The Chief Secretary informed the Mission of the Government's all-inclusive strategy to deal with corruption led by the Minister of Governance, who will also be attending the 9th IACC in Durban. He mentioned that the Government was aware of the current work by the Team members and was encouraging all stakeholders to provide input into the draft national anti-corruption program. He further mentioned that the Government had strengthened the Prevention of Corruption Bureau (PCB) by establishing branch offices in all regions of the country with an increased budget. The Bureau has now been given powers of search, arrest and prosecution.

The Mission discussed the matrix with Team members and urged them to continue the collaborative approach, encouraging them to continue to reach out to all the stakeholders. The Direc-tor of the PCB informed the Mission that he would be providing funding for the media group to organize a workshop among themselves to discuss the draft action program in order to pro- vide their own input. Members committed themselves to inte-grate the country matrix into the overall national anti-corruption action program that was still in draft form. The Team expressed its understanding that, in addition to promoting a participatory approach towards fighting corruption, the current WBI initiative is also geared towards strengthening the capacity of the country through the provision of inputs and analytical support, as well as other on-going efforts in the country which aim at improving governance and accountability.

The Mission's meetings with the Ghanaian Country Team re-vealed that more attention was needed in involving and reaching out to other stakeholders. After the Team returned from Wash- ington, the Institute of Economic Affairs conducted a couple of workshops that brought together members of the media as well as civil society to discuss the issue of corruption. The Team members informed the Mission that they were planning to integrate the country matrix with the National Integrity Report produced by the Committee for Human Rights and Justice (CHRAJ), which outlined the beginning of a national strategy for the country.

In both individual and group meetings, it was emphasized to the Mission that there was some skepticism about the level of political will on the part of Government to fight corruption. The country at the present time does not have a coherent national anti-corruption program and the organizations in charge of leading the fight against corruption in the country so far, have not been successful in gaining top-level political commitment to endorse a national anti-corruption program. The Government provides support to the institutions in charge of corruption, e.g. CHRAJ and the Serious Frauds Office, but it has been unwilling to endorse a national program. Team members informed the Mission that they were trying to reach out to other stakeholders, including religious bodies.

The Malawi Country Team has been unable to accomplish any significant progress in terms of advancing the anti-corruption agenda since the meeting in Washington, mainly due to logistical problems-two of the members of the group are in Lilongwe and three are in Blantyre. However, the lack of group progress, does not indicate that individual participants have not performed some activities independently. Although the Country Team has not meet collectively since its return from the WBI seminar, except for during the distant learning activity, some of the members have met on a bilateral basis.

The mission met individually with the Team members as well as with other stakeholders working on developing an anti-corruption strategy. The Anti- Corruption Bureau for example, has been active during the recent weeks in the process of achieving full operational capacity to comply with its mandate. The Bureau took some actions to keep up with some of the definitions contained in the matrix. For example, the Director of the ACB met on August 12 with members of 17 non-governmental organiza- tions to inform them of the role of the Bureau and to try to establish a liaison between its work and the civil society organizations. Three meeting were held with social groups, such as schools and religious groups, to conduct awareness-raising activities regarding corruption. The meetings were held in Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe between June 21 and August 17.

During the mission, the Legal Reform Committee was finali-zing the findings of its evaluation of the legal system in Malawi. The results of this study will be an important input for the ACB program. The Director of the ACB will use the final proceedings of the committee when it convenes with its members in order to share the experience gathered from Washington and explore areas of mutual interest in order to take action.

In subsequent meetings with civil society representatives, two concrete results made: first, the organization of a survey on corruption in Malawi, in connection with assistance provided by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry; and second was the organization of a workshop with NGOs with the aide of the Council for Non-Governmental Organizations, as a means of expanding the base of organizations committed to anti-corruption activities.

Several civil society members believe that the problem in Malawi is more the lack of political will to comply with already existing regulations than insufficient monitoring systems. They contend that at certain levels, mismanagement, lack of trans-parency and even cases on wrong-doing can be present. However, some other members were optimistic, noting that there is a movement in Malawi towards more responsible practices in government. They believe this attitude of change will succeed if government is able to avoid using the issue of corruption as a political argument to fight opponents, especially if the agencies in charge of presenting solutions, such as the ACB and the Ombudsman do a better job in focussing their target.

The Béninois has worked assiduously both to prepare the environment in which they are conducting their present and future anti-corruption work, and to prepare the material that will be presented and discussed in Durban. The Team added a section under the rubric, "Application of the Rule of Law," in which such non-technical, corruption-related problems were listed as an absence of appropriate means to finance politics, a lack of respect for the balance of powers within the governing structure, and the absence of legislation providing for freedom of access to information. Groups representing civil society organizations such as Front des Organisations Nationales Contre la Corruption (FONAC), and Transparency International (TI) also participated in some of the meetings.

The Team, together with the mission, presented the latest iteration of the matrix "Prioritising Problem Areas" (in French) to the Finance Minister, and discussed and agreed with him about the next steps to be taken to achieve agreement on anti-corruption strategy, action plan and administrative structure (the Cabinet has already formally considered and endorsed in writing the mandate and the work of the Team).

The Finance Minister asked that a comprehensive, integrated anti-corruption be prepared, that it be validated by civil servants, civil society, the private sector and (informally) by Members of Parliament, and that donors be kept abreast with a view to their eventually supporting elements of its implementation. In order to do this, the Team will proceed, essentially, according to the following next steps:

  • Discuss and refine the matrices with the Office of the Finance Minister;
  • Discuss the matrices with a view to strengthening them in a workshop chaired by the Finance Minister and including rep-resentatives of all other ministries, NGOs, the private sector and the media (public and private) (the Finance Minister asked the group to ensure the participation of up-country people as well as people from the capital);
  • Conduct a similar session, under the chairmanship of TI, with representatives of state institutions;
  • Incorporate the results of the above into a draft Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan for presentation by the Finance Minister to Cabinet;
  • Establish an enlarged, official anti-corruption working group and arrange for the official launching of a National Anti-Corruption Programme.

The Minister agreed to support the Group through the provision of basic office facilities, equipment and materials, meeting facilities, and English language training. He also asked the Team to establish an anti-corruption web-page within the Ministry's web-page on the Internet.

The Béninois Group listed the following relevant anti- corruption measures that have been taken since the first phase of the Core Course in Washington:

  • A committee was established to take an inventory of existing audit reports Government accounts of acts of embezzlement committed over the period April 1996 to April, 1999. Some Cfa 70 billion worth of embezzlement has been identified and copies of the documents were made available to the Mission evidencing 121 cases submitted to the courts;
  • A "Code for Ethics in Public Procurement" has been issued as a decree;
  • A National Press Council (ODEM) has been established;
  • A Code of Ethics for Journalists has been drafted;
  • A series of simple and attractive user guides has been published and is currently being promulgated via an information and education campaign across the country. They provide information on documents required, their cost, procedures to follow, and the time it should take for a civil servant to provide a service in the following areas:
    • Applying for National and International Scholarships;
    • Obtaining Financing for Self-Employment
    • Basic training for self-employment
    • The Denationalisation Process
    • The Investment Code
  • Bénin has participated in the preparation of a recently published, draft "Code of Transparency for the Management of Public Finances in the UEMOA" (Economic and Monetary Union of West African States).


The Kenyan Team, in collaboration with other stakeholders, is making progress in the development of a National Anti-Corrup-tion Action Plan. The Resident Mission is currently preparing a request for an IDF Grant to support KACA. However, such a relationship with the KACA must not exclude the role of the other stakeholders.

The various stakeholder mandates should complement each other and the other stakeholders should also be considered for institutional support. The "Futa Magendo's" for example, have been working to try to recapture the population that has distanced itself from the Government. In any case, emphasis should be placed on encouraging the concept of stakeholder partnerships where they are all working towards the same goal-minimizing corruption and improving governance in Kenya.

Collaboration with and contributions to the overall program by stakeholders must be encouraged by the Government representatives on the Team. Emphasis should be placed on insti-tuting sustainable anti- corruption reforms not so much through the deployment of specific anti-corruption reforms in a pre-determined sequence, but rather through the process of building coalitions from within.

The Country Team is working hard in incorporating its current matrix into the draft National Anti-Corruption Action Plan, which has been endorsed by the donors. However, the Team needs increase its collaboration with other stakeholder groups.

The Government has taken some steps to strengthen the PCB, one indication of the political will to address corruption. However, pressure still needs to be applied on the government to demonstrate the strength of its commitment to fight corruption. Anti-corruption efforts should be coordinated with other on-going efforts, especially those of other donors which aim at improving accountability and transparency in the country.

Country Team needs to increase the involvement of other stakeholders in the process of developing an anti-corruption strategy

The Team members question the extent of political will from the Government primarily because it has not endorsed the anti-corruption plan submitted by the Commission on Human Rights and Justice (CHRAJ), the constitutional mandated body to deal with corruption.

The Team members need to continue reaching out to other stakeholders, including recruiting allies from the other branches of government as well. If they can build and strengthen the coalition with other stakeholders, the executive branch may have no choice but to join them. However, the Team should approach the executive as a partner in order to win its confidence, rather than as an adversary.

The Béninois Team intend to proceed with its colleagues to develop and promote the approval of an anti-corruption plan with sequenced, ranked priorities reached by consensus and in which action can be initiated over the next few months and the longer term. The Béninois Team should continue to involve other stakeholders in the process of developing their anti- corruption strategy.

A majority of the civil society groups believe that the govern-ment has not been aggressive enough on the issue of corruption and that the Anti-Corruption Bureau is an insufficiently serious initiative in their eyes. The business community expects results from the public sector that are not yet available. If corruption is to be addressed seriously, then structural reform is needed. The Chamber of Commerce sometimes has brought the issue forward under the name of "competitiveness."

The Team members should continue to bring other stakeholders together as a way of enlarging the representation of the group. For example, the Team can involve "CONGOMA", the NGO that represents the largest and most significant organiza-tions of civil society. Civil society should be encouraged to be active in promoting actions and activities that do not require government support or partnership.

It should be emphasized that since these technical support visits took place over the summer of 1999, and the follow-up Distance Learning AVideo (and Audio) Links from Washington to all seven sites in Africa, considerable further progress has been attained in many of te countries involved in this program (prior to their presentation at the 9th IACC Conference in Durban).


No anti-corruption program will look the same. Corruption is a symptom of institutional weaknesses, and these institutional failures are partly country-specific. Thus governance programs must be tailored to the individual country's specific institutional and political realities. At the same time, there are certain actions for anti-corruption general enough to be considered more generally in Africa and elsewhere. These recommendations for discussion include:

  1. Freedom of Information Act
    The restriction in obtaining and publishing information about corruption severely limits the civil society's (in-cluding the media's) possibilities to monitor the government and the public sector. With freedom of information, investigative journalism can play an important role not only in exposing corruption and corrupt practices, but also by publicising the positive side of combating corruption..
  2. Repeal/Restraint of Civil and Criminal Libel Laws
    In some developing countries politicians are unaccustomed to legitimate media scrutiny. Consequently, civil and criminal libel laws leads to imprisonment for reporters and the owners of media outlets. Such actions send the wrong message to the media-- asking them to hold their tongues and that criticisms will not be tolerated. A free press is necessary to a democracy and libel suits against news media, particularly by members of government need to be restrained and/or repealed.
  3. OECD and other International Anti-Bribery Convention
    The negative effects of corruption reach across borders and therefore require the concerted attention of the international community. International organizations such as the OECD, the Council of Europe, and the OAS are also taking steps toward fighting corruption, including the use of international instruments such as international conventions. The OECD convention on combating bribery of public officials could provide an important tool in the fight against corruption. The effective implementation of this convention by the signatories needs to be accelerated, and the initiative must be broadened to include other important trading partners.
  4. Responsibility of the Donor Community
    The donor community must make a greater effort in ensuring zero corruption in aid projects, by imposing more stringent controls, improve oversight and involve civil society in moni-toring and planning. At the same time, donors will need to provide for sustained and focused assistance to countries implementing anti-corruption.
  5. Civil Society Empowerment
    Corruption can be effectively tackled only when institutional and political reforms are complemented by a systematic effort to inform citizens about their rights and entitlements and involving them. Empowering civil society and forming coalitions with others should be a crucial aspect of an anti-corruption program.


    (As input to each Team; the chosen areas of priority, emphasis, and details will vary by Country)

    I. Reform of Public-Sector Institutions
    A. Public Expenditure and Financial Management
    • Public Expenditures: Identifying/stopping white elephants
    • Public Expenditures: Less fraud in transfers
    • Public Expenditures: Less fraud in concessions/contracting
    • Budget Preparation Process: Transparency and accountability
    • Treasury/Financial Management Systems: Modernization
    • Public Procurement Reform
    • Budgetary Audit Institutions/Mechanisms: Public Accounts Committees (PACs)
    B. Public Administration
    • Meritocracy in recruitment and promotion
    • Pay and incentive/benefit structure for staff; pension
    • Ethics standards, punishment, appeals procedures
    • Rigorous testing; training
    C. Reform/Revamping of Customs and Internal Revenue
    • Customs Reform: Tariff code simplification/transparency
    • Revenue Authorities: Institutional and tax reform
    D. Public Accountability
    • Public reporting requirements
    • Ombudsperson/Ethics Office
    • Public Officials (and spouses/off-spring) Assets Declaration/Disclosure
    II. Deregulation, Demonopolization and Competition
    • Clear and transparent rules/procedures, limited bureaucratic discretion
    • Deregulation of enterprise sector; easing entry; competition policies
    • Demonopolization
    • Regulatory reform for infrastructure sectors
    III. Privatization
    • Transparency in transaction/process; less insider dealing
    • Valuation, speed and scope of privatization
    • Adequate institutional mechanisms
    IV. Financial Sector
    • Transparency mechanisms in Central Bank
    • Regulatory framework for banks/banking system
    • Insider lending; directed credit, insider trading, forex
    • Rules of disclosure; other "transparency" reforms
    V. Enhancing Political Will: Participatory and other mechanisms
    VI. Judiciary and Legal
    • Pay, salary, benefit structure; meritocratic promotions
    • Enforcement of ethics standards
    • Impartial case assignment procedures
    • Independence and accountability; appointments of judges
    • Promoting alternative dispute resolution mechanisms
    • Other alternatives to official rule of law institutions
    • Recourse (and promotion/signatories of) international laws (OECD/GCA/OAU, etc.)
    VII. Macro- and trade reforms
    • Macro economic stabilization/lowering inflation
    • Exchange rate unification/market determination
    • Trade liberalization; tariff rationalization and uniformity
    VIII. Public education and communication
    • Adult education on anti-corruption campaign
    • First and secondary school curriculum
    • Mass media education and communication campaign
    • Teacher training and proper incentives

    Meritocratic university entry/grading/diploma
    IX. Enforcement
    • Legislative framework for prosecuting corruption cases
    • Depoliticized prosecution of corruption cases
    • Effective and honest police
    • Effective anti-corruption commission/institution
    • Actual prosecution of some "big fish" as deterrent (not from the opposition…)
    X. Anti-poverty and public service delivery
    • Safe-guarding ("ring-fencing")social programs
    • Access to health and education without bribes
    • Improved public service delivery with probity
    • Anti-corruption in environmental programs
    XI. Municipal-level anti-corruption/transparency reform programs
    • Anti-corruption programs at the municipal level
    • Transparent and effective local budgetary process and execution
    • Municipal modernization and reform
    • Public audiences/transparent procurement at local level
    XII. Anti-corruption in World Bank projects
    • New procurement/audit approaches/guidelines (OCS)
    • Adjusting type of projects/lending to reality on the ground
    • Project preparation; monitoring, participation, technology
    • Widely shared information database, unit costs
    Transparency, Data Power, Participatory Coalition-Building and Collective Action
    XIII. Civil society participation and public oversight
    • NGO oversight
    • NGO participation in anti-corruption program design/implementation
    • Sharing of data/information with civil society
    • Seminars/workshops: Parliament, policy-makers, media/investigative journalism
    XIV. Diagnostics, empirical monitoring and action plan
    • Empirical diagnostics on governance: in-depth surveys of public officials/Parliament, firms, citizens
    • Survey diagnostics, tracking studies of budgetary allocations to sectors (health, education), complemented by analysis of hard data/tracking carried out by local institutions with methodological support from donors/WBI
    • Task force of gov't, NGO, other experts prepare Action Program with diagnostic inputs
    • Analysis and dissemination of results; input to Task Force
    • Participatory workshops for consensus and collective action; public announcement of program; WBI support
    • Commitment by top leadership to action program and start of program implementation; up-front actions
    • Implementation of Action Program an its monitoring/evaluation; report card monitoring, etc.

    Forthcoming from the World Bank Institute (spring 2000):


    The integration of process and substance is paramount in formulating a realistic anticorruption action program. Successful anti-corruption programs need to integrate: rigorous information, data and knowledge; leadership and collective action.

    These three components form the core of a new volume from WBI, containing a collection of articles and case studies written for the World Bank Institute's Core Course Program "Controlling Corruption: Towards an Integrated Strategy".


    Workshop Design and Implementation
    Course Overview, Design and Content

    Phase 1: Action Planning Workshop
    Summary of Proceedings
    New Frontiers in Diagnosing and Combating Corruption
    Using Surveys for Public Sector Reform
    Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from the Field
    Political Will
    Diagnosing and Combating Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Addressing Corruption in Bank Financed Procurement

    Phase 2: Institutional Reforms

    Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption Reform
    A Case Study: Judicial System
    Political Incentives and Sting Operations
    Combating Fraud in Procurement and Contracting
    Case Study: Procurement
    Agency-Specific Surveys and Monitoring Strategies: Case Studies in Improving Transparency in Public Procurement
    Tracking Government Expenditures
    Financial Management vs. Corruption
    Case Study: Financial Management
    The Role of Civil Service Reform in Combating Corruption
    Case Study: Civil Service Reform
    Developing an Integrated Strategy to Tackle Corruption in Customs
    Case Study: Customs

    Phase 3: Sample of Action Program

    Checklist of Anti-Corruption Measures in an Anti-Corruption Strategy
    From Diagnostics to Design: Exercise on Analyzing Survey Results
    A Case Study of Systems in Conflict: Measles Eradication in Kabinja
    Preliminary Datasheet on Governance Indicators for Selected African Countries

    Related Materials
    Annotated Agenda
    List of Participants
    Course Management Group
    Reading List for Phase 1

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