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Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers

Abstracts of presentations

Day 2, Workshop 1

Africa, Cherrel / Mattes, Robert:
Corruption - The Attitudinal Component: Tracking Public Perceptions Of Official Corruption In South Africa, 1995-1998

The paper describes and tracks changes in the public perception of government corruption in South Africa. Perceptions are seen as equally or more important than actual occurrence, since they determine the public attitude toward its government. Results from seven separate surveys of nationally representative samples of South Africans designed by Idasa's Public Opinion Service are compared. In addition to looking at change over time, the question of how important and how widespread corruption is perceived to be by the general public is approached from several different angles, using different survey questions and approaches. Analysis of the data show that perceptions vary significantly by race and province, but not by exposure to the media, education, income or rural-urban status. Regarding the effect of perceptions about corruption on the legitimacy of the regime and democracy in general, the data shows that perceptions of corruption have consistent, independent impacts on people's satisfaction with democracy. Across all surveys there can be seen only mixed impacts of perceptions about corruption on trust in government.

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Gasiep, Cassiem:
International Public Procurement

The paper presents the provisions of the South African public procurement system which serve to minimise corruption and misuse.

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Gopakumar, K.:
The Experience of Bangladesh

Transparency International Bangladesh has carried out five surveys on levels of corruption in Bangladesh. Four further surveys are in preparation or planned. The importance of carrying out empirical research and its effectiveness in raising awareness are noted. The methodological steps used for the pilot and nation-wide survey are presented, as are the results of a governance survey carried out for the Human Development Centre in 1999.

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Lambsdorff, Dr. Johann Graf :
Corruption in Empirical Research - A Review

Data on the perceived level of corruption from a cross-section of countries have been fruitfully introduced into empirical research lately. This study reviews a large variety of studies on the consequences and causes of corruption. It includes research on the impact of corruption on investment, GDP, institutional quality, government expenditure, poverty and international flows of capital, goods and aid. Research on the causes of corruption focuses on the absence of competition, policy distortions, political systems, public salaries as well as an examination of colonialism, gender and other cultural dimensions.

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Wei , Shang-Jin :
Special Governance Zone: A Practical Entry-Point for a Winnable Anti- Corruption Program

Whereas the cost of corruption in a typical developing or transition economy is high for economic and social development, national leaders may be concerned with political risk, budgetary constraints, and local suitability associated with any comprehensive reform program that is needed to reduce corruption. This proposal aims to balance political economy considerations with those of economic efficiency. It advocates establishing a special governance zone (SGZ) within a country as an entry point for an eventual nation-wide anti-corruption program. A SGZ is an enclave within which comprehensive reforms can take place. It is geographically limited so that any unpredictable negative consequences can be contained. Reform measures can also be explored and fine-tuned to fit better the culture and history of the country in question. Once successful, its experience can serve as a model for the rest of the country. The World Bank (and other international institutions) can play an important role especially at the initial stage of the programme.

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