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INTERNATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION CONFERENCE (IACC)
Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers


Abstracts of presentations

Day 1, Workshop 1,
Fighting Corruption in Africa: Lessons Learned from the Region



Du Pisani, L. H.:
Public Service Ethics in Africa: the Namibian Initiative


The paper describes the national consultative process to elicit opinion and develop proposals for a comprehensive legislative, administrative and public education framework for the promotion of ethical behaviour and the prevention and combating of corruption, which Namibia has been carrying since 1996. This process culminated in a National Consultative Conference in 1998 at which a number of recommendations were formulated regarding the national approach to corruption and the desired characteristics of an anti-corruption agency. The Office of Prosecutor General was strengthened to take on the task of preventing, investigating and prosecuting corruption cases. Measures for enforcement and containment and an effective institutional framework including legislation must still be put into place. Information gathered regionally and internationally on governance measures to control corruption are very valuable in developing and implementing effective anti-corruption measures. Some of the lessons learned by the Namibian experience are enumerated.

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Gyimah-Boadi, E.:
Towards an enhanced role for civil society in the fight against corruption in Africa


In the past, civil society has played a limited role in combating corruption. Today, however, political, social and economic developments in Africa present an unprecedented opportunity for civil society to play a major role in the fight against corruption on the continent. A growing voice for business associations; a change of business "culture"; the spread of liberal democratic constitutions; the emergence of a vibrant print and electronic media; and the emergence of a new strategy of combating corruption - the national integrity system have all contributed to creating this potential. The main functions which civil society can fulfil in fighting corruption are to raise awareness and foster public support for reforms; support official anti-corruption agencies; and support and protect anti-corruption campaigners within civil society. The business sector is a significant part of civil society in achieving these goals. Civil society organisations also have responsibilities as champions of transparency, accountability and a corruption free public and private sector. They must themselves develop codes of conduct and professional ethics.

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Holloway, Richard:
Fighting Corruption in Africa: lessons learned from the region


Southern Africa's approach to fighting corruption must be four tiered, encompassing Prevention, Investigation, Prosecution, and Civic awareness. Progress made in Malawi, South Africa, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and through the SADC is described. Especially the role of the media and gender aspects of corruption are addressed. Regional and global co-operation on anti-corruption measures, including information data banks and networks, is essential.

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Magassouba, Mahamdou:
The importance of regional co-operation for anti-corruption efforts


Like examples in other parts of the world, we need to move towards an African regional convention in order to fight corruption, particularly to overcome problems such as extradition procedures. A common approach to corruption is needed, namely that it is regarded as a crime across jurisdictions. Regional integration and harmonisation of commercial law is important. Not only political will but also the creation of support structures is crucial. Therefore the Global Coalition for Africa's Principles should be enacted by signatories. In corruption cases it is difficult to provide evidence and thus the onus of proof should be placed on the person who is accused of committing corruption. The population in general must be sensitised to the problem and public awareness to popularise information is very important.

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Mahop, Christophe N.:
Joining Hands For A Cleaner World: An opportunity for African ethics Renaissance


Africa has long been perceived to be the most corruption continent. Now that corruption is of international concern, Africa has a central role in developing strategies to combat corruption, which will give it a leading place in ethically shaping the century and the next millennium. Slavery and the colonial legacy have shaped the African polity in the past.

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Makalou, Oumar:
Privatisation In Africa : A Critical Analysis


Privatisation, a critical component of structural adjustment, is so fashionable in the economic vocabulary and programs that an abundant literature flourished on that topic. Recent studies, statements, and publications, including within the World Bank Group and bilateral public and private agencies, give a view of the wide spectrum of privatisation world-wide. This paper focuses on the African privatisation experience, and particularly in the so - called Sub-Saharan countries, and is organised as follows:

Firstly, it examines what has been the African experience or the record of privatisation to date; Secondly, it addresses the question of why and how Africa has privatised through a critical assessment analysis; and, Thirdly, it draws the lessons from that experience for future actions and suggests from a personal point of view, the next steps that need to be considered. co-operation is needed and specific recommendations for SEDC are made.

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Makumbe, John Mw.:
Fighting Corruption in the SADC and Sub-Saharan Africa


This paper places the discussions about corruption in South Africa and the global South into the context of the wider economic and political inequality of North-South relations. The common focus on public sector reforms in the South leads to a lack of acknowledgement of the role of the private sector and "Northern" companies in the global phenomenon of corruption. Concepts such as "grand corruption" and "systemic corruption" need to be rethought taking these relations into account. Various dimensions of corruption, from micro to macro levels, are considered. To counteract cross-border corruption, regional co-operation is needed and specific recommendations for SEDC are made.

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Matembe, Miria:
Inclusion of the Principles to Combat Corruption in National Strategies by African Countries


Hon. Miria Matembe outlines the actions of the Government of Uganda to implement the 25 Principles against corruption developed by the Global Coalition for Africa (GCA) in Washington DC in February 1999.

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Warioba, Joseph S.:
The rationale for and overview of the principles to combat corruption in African countries


The Global Coalition for Africa has spear-headed efforts to develop a possible instrument of co-operation in combating corruption in Africa with a meeting in February 1999 in Washington with eleven African countries who adopted a set of 25 Principles to Combat Corruption in Africa. The emphasis is on national action and encourages countries to develop strategies in accordance with national realities and circumstances. It covers prevention, enforcement, institution building, public participation and continental co-operation. Political will is a necessity for a successful anti-corruption strategy and unless there is a clear and comprehensive programme of action that has a focal point for accountability, this will remain a paper strategy. It is crucial that countries prioritise in terms of timeframe and sector of concentration. In particular a direct attack on corruption in key institutions such as the judiciary, police force and the media is important as well as the economic sector. Public awareness and involvement is a key element in efforts to eradicate corruption and the media have a role to play in raising public awareness. Collaboration and co-operation at the continental level would strengthen the capacity of individual countries to combat and eventually eradicate corruption. Apart from consolidating efforts to combat corruption in Africa a convention would facilitate co-operation between Africa and other continents or regions with similar conventions.

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